Guest post Research integrity Uncategorized

The microscopic talent of Prof Amenta

"Professor Amenta is truly a renaissance man and a knowledge powerhouse according to his colleagues and students. Amenta’s sole focus in life is the creation and dissemination of knowledge"

From the ancient Rome through Middle Ages and the Renaissance and into the modern times, Italy was always at the forefront of arts and science. Some say Italian mastery has faltered in the last decades, its greatest scholarly minds having left the country to advance science abroad. In biomedicine, I am thinking of geniuses like Piero Anversa, Carlo Croce, Pier Paolo Pandolfi, Paolo Macchiarini

Well, luckily many grand men of science stayed and advanced the Italian research to the amazing heights it is currently famous for. Like Professor Francesco Amenta, the hero of this new article by Aneurus Inconstans.

A pharmacology professor, author of over 500 papers, who trained many great scholars, already professors themselves. Great artistic skills were learned and taught in the tiny medieval town of Camerino, in Amenta’s case already a quarter of century ago and years in advance to his peers in northern Europe and USA, who at that time often had no clue of Photoshop, and still used to fake their figures with paper, scissors and glue.

Look at this ancient classic, its authors are the protagonists of today’s story:

Alberto Ricci , Elena Bronzetti , Francesco Mannino , Fiorenzo Mignini , Carolina Morosetti , Seyed K. Tayebati , Francesco Amenta Dopamine receptors in human platelets Naunyn-Schmiedeberg s Archives of Pharmacology (2001) doi: 10.1007/s002100000339

Aneurus inconstans: “These blots are made up. The same blots were published by the same group in Mignini et al 2000 (see boxes of the same color). Moreover, bands have been digitally added here and there (see arrows). Beside that, I have rarely seen more bizarre Western blots before. The two papers were submitted in May and August 2000, respectively, and accepted one month apart from each other, in January 2001 and

Another example, and do you know many fraudsters who could fake figures in Photoshop like this over 20 years ago?

Maurizio Sabbatini , Amedeo Leonardi , Rodolfo Testa , Daniele Tomassoni, Lucia Vitaioli , Francesco Amenta Effects of Dihydropyridine-Type Ca 2+ Antagonists on the Renal Arterial Tree in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology (2002) doi: 10.1097/00005344-200201000-00005

Back then, Amenta’s mentee Maurizio Sabbatini retorted on PubPeer:

Many microphotograph from stained histological sample are the result of image software processing to improve the contrast and make the details of the organ’s microanatomy more visible. This process can eliminate some differences in microanatomical details by making parts of the organ apparently similar or much more similar than it actually is.

You sure can’t await to see more.

The microscopic talent of Prof Amenta

By Aneurus Inconstans

Francesco Amenta, full professor of anatomy and pharmacology at the University of Camerino (UNICAM) in Italy, is one of the characters I introduced here weeks ago, one of the many foes haunting the Italian academia. We have already wrote about him and his Photoshop group on several occasions actually, and whoever is interested can get more insights here, here, here, and here.

The Name of the Foes

“I am Jorge de Burgos. I believe research should pause in searching for the progress of knowledge. Right now, we don’t need more papers, we rather need more knowledge by going through a continuous and sublime recapitulation to figure out what is true and what is fake” – Aneurus Inconstans

However, I kept combing through Amenta’s publication record, and as of today the amazing Prof Amenta has reached the remarkable number of 52 papers flagged on PubPeer for outrageous fabrications (mainly of microscopy data) in a span of twenty-four years. For decades, his group dabbled in histological studies of rats astrocytes and immunohistochemical analyses of enzymes, transporters and receptors in rodents and human tissues upon different treatments and pathological conditions.

Amenta, who likes to call himselftruly a renaissance man and a knowledge powerhouse“, was able to rely on cheating collaborators of the calibre of Daniele Tomassoni (UNICAM, 29 papers for him on PubPeer) and Maurizio Sabbatini (now at the University of Eastern Piedmont, 18 papers on PubPeer), who have been both already mentioned in my previous writing, and are both associate professors in their respective universities.

The article below, the oldest on PubPeer from this gang (as of today), is a vintage work that deserves respect, if only for the Photoshop skills. The paper dates to 1999, first-authored by Sabbatini:

Sabbatini M, Bronzetti E, Felici L, Fringuelli C, Sagratella S, Amenta F* NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus: effect of electrolytic lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Mech Ageing Dev (1999) doi: 10.1016/s0047-6374(98)00140-7

Those NADPH-diaphorase reactive nerve fibre-like structures in (B-D) are showing segments that appear to be identical (boxes of same color). I have highlighted only the most obvious examples.

In Figure 1 (left) each image is supposed to describe a different condition, in Figure 3 (right) those filamentous structures are claimed to increase in number in NBM-lesioned rats, but they are made up.

Sabbatini might be a bad scientist but he is a good entertainer. You can get a laugh from his creative explanations in the threads of Sabbatini 2002 MAD, Sabbatini 2002 JCP and Sabbatini 2001 MAD (in chronological order). Below is the latest:

“The answer is always the same. The indicated frame evidences a classical technical artefact, that can be found with a relative frequency in microphotographs”

[Prof M. Sabbatini]

But the Camerino Photoshop team includes more appalling individuals.

Another Amenta’s loyalist is the Persian-born associate professor at UNICAM Seyed Khosrow Tayebati (21 papers on PubPeer for him), first author in many bogus articles by the group, like it is the case with Tomassoni and Sabbatini. Prof Tayebati studied pharmacy in Iran, then moved to Italy for a PhD in pharmaceutical chemistry at the University of Pisa, and then right afterwards in 1994 he joined Amenta’s group in Camerino, where he remains until today.

Below here you can admire an early production by Tayebati, the cloned areas are many more than those highlighted. The images are completely made up:

Tayebati SK, Bronzetti E, Morra Di Cella S, Mulatero P, Ricci A, Rossodivita I, Schena M, Schiavone D, Veglio F, Amenta F* In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry of alpha1-adrenoceptors in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology (2000) doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2680.2000.00196.x

Dark-field micrograph of a1A adrenoceptor mRNA in cytospin-centrifuged human peripheral blood lymphocytes determined by in situ hybridization cytochemistry.
Dark-field micrograph of a1B adrenoceptor mRNA. As for image (A), silver grains representing hybridization signal were observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

The next one is a masterpiece employing the technique of “cell collage“, the kind of forgery I enjoy the most. The article is also enriched by fake Western blots, not shown here, but you can see them on PubPeer. Each micrograph is supposed to describe a different immuno-cytochemical detection. Do not be fooled by appearances: the salmon-pink boxes indeed highlight identical cells, but some have been adjusted in brightness:

Tayebati SK, El-Assouad D, Ricci A, Amenta F* Immunochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of cholinergic markers in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Journal of Neuroimmunology (2002) doi: 10.1016/s0165-5728(02)00325-9

Confocal laser micrographs of peripheral blood lymphocytes processed for the immunocytochemical detection of cholinergic markers.
A-B are ACh, C-D are ChAT, E-F are AChE, G-H are VAChT.
Confocal laser micrographs of peripheral blood lymphocytes processed for the immunocytochemical detection of M2–M5 muscarinic receptor protein immunoreactivity.
A-B are M2, C-D are M3, E-F are M4, G-H are M5.

Below yet another lovely cell collage. Amenta could not resist putting himself first and corresponding author on this one, because it’s such a beautiful scam. Brace yourself:

Amenta F*, Bronzetti E, Cantalamessa F, El-Assouad D, Felici L, Ricci A, Tayebati SK Identification of dopamine plasma membrane and vesicular transporters in human peripheral blood lymphocytes J Neuroimmunol (2001) doi: 10.1016/s0165-5728(01)00317-4

Confocal laser micrographs of cytospin centrifuged peripheral blood lymphocytes processed for DAT immunoreactivity.
Confocal laser micrographs of cytospin centrifuged peripheral blood lymphocytes processed for VMAT-2
immunoreactivity. Slide was processed with antibodies pre-adsorbed with peptides used for generating them.
Confocal laser micrographs of cytospin centrifuged peripheral blood lymphocytes processed for VMAT-2
Confocal laser micrographs of cytospin centrifuged peripheral blood lymphocytes processed for dopamine immunoreactivity.

Another recurring name in Amenta’s papers is the associate professor at La Sapienza University of Rome, Alberto Ricci (18 papers on Pubpeer). Ricci and Amenta are old friends, they have been collaborating since 1987 when they were both in Rome.

Below you’ll admire yet another masterful cell collage, each micrograph is supposed to represent a different immunodetection. Some cells have been digitally modified to appear a bit different: pay attention to the red, blue, yellow, cyan and turquoise boxes.

Ricci A*, Greco S, Mariotta S*, Felici L, Amenta F, Bronzetti E. Neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor expression in alveolar macrophages: an immunocytochemical study Growth Factors (2000) doi: 10.3109/08977190009003244

Figure 1 (left): immunocytochemistry of NGF (A), BDNF (B) NT-3 (C) and anti-NGF antibody pre-adsorbed with beta-NGF (D) in alveolar macrophages. Figure 2 (right): immuno cytochemistry ofMAC387 (A), p75 (B), TrkA (C), TrkB (D), TrkC (E), and anti-TrkB antibody pre-adsorbed with receptor blocking peptide (F).

And guess what? We are privileged to read Ricci’s PubPeer reply on this scientific atrocity, brace yourself:

“The photos in question were digitized through a scanner and the only changes concerned the elimination of defects without, in any way change the reality and the truthfulness of the results.”

[Prof A. Ricci]

Co-corresponding author of the previous paper is Salvatore Mariotta (7 papers on PubPeer), while in the last position in the authors list we find another old friend of Ricci’s & Amenta’s, Elena Bronzetti (15 papers on PubPeer). Both Mariotta and Bronzetti are now retired and used to be associate professors at La Sapienza University.

The next article is about neurotrophins (growth factors that regulate survival, development and function of neurons) and neurotrophin receptors in human lung cancer cells. Ricci is again first and corresponding author, all the Western blots are ridiculously fake:

Ricci A*, Greco S, Mariotta S, Felici L, Bronzetti E, Cavazzana A, Cardillo G, Amenta F, Bisetti A, Barbolini G. Neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in human lung cancer Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol (2001) doi: 10.1165/ajrcmb.25.4.4470

Again Dr Ricci was keen to explain (highlights mine):

“I am sorry for your comments. The data of this work are real and the stretching of some blots is due to the attempt to standardize the figures with a similar format. In addition, the observations presented are strongly supported by all the subsequent confirmatory literature on the same subject, which has also led to possible clinical applications.”

[Prof A. Ricci]

WE are very sorry we paid you an undeserved salary for thirty years, Dr Ricci.

Heaven only knows what an “attempt to standardize the figures” means, and how this could possibly justify that the same band describes NGF, TrkB and TrkC a the same time (blue boxes), or that another band does it for BDNF and NT-3 (light blue boxes). When challenged with these questions, Dr Ricci cut off all communication.

Ricci, Mariotta and Bronzetti did not necessarily rely on Amenta for fake papers, they also led their own business. The next one is rotting on PubPeer for four years already and nobody cares, it was flagged by commenter Anemone sellowii and it’s again dealing with neurotrophins:

Ricci A*, Graziano P, Mariotta S, Cardillo G, Sposato B, Terzano C, Bronzetti E. Neurotrophin system expression in human pulmonary carcinoid tumors Growth Factors (2005) doi: 10.1080/08977190500233813

This is all very old stuff, and although the falsehood is obvious, it remains to be seen whether any journal will deign to withdraw any of these articles.

Let’s move on by ten years and you’ll see that old habits haven’t changed by these people.

Here is a paper in a MDPI journal with Tayebati as corresponding author, while the (un)reliable Tomassoni is in first position:

Tomassoni D, Amenta F, Amantini C, Farfariello V, Di Cesare Mannelli L, Nwankwo IE, Marini C, Tayebati SK* Brain activity of thioctic Acid enantiomers: in vitro and in vivo studies in an animal model of cerebrovascular injury Int J Mol Sci (2013) doi: 10.3390/ijms14034580

Figure 4B and 4E are supposed to represent control SHRs and SHR treated with (+)-thioctic acid 125 μmol/kg/day, respectively, but the images largely overlap
Cloned portions are recognizable in this ommuno-histochemical detection of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SHR rats treated with thioctic acid 125 μmol/kg/day.
Figure 6C and 6E supposedly represent different treatments, but the images overlap.

Even more recent is the following paper, whose title is self-explanatory, with Tayebati as first and corresponding author. Again in a MDPI outlet, this time the gang decided to break the routine and had a go with Western blots. This is the result:

Tayebati SK*, Martinelli I, Moruzzi M, Amenta F, Tomassoni D. Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain Nutrients (2017) doi: 10.3390/nu9101084

During the XXXII National Congress of the Italian Group for the study of Neuromorphology (G.i.s.n.), held in Naples on 25 and 26 November 2022, Prof Tayebati was elected secretary general of the Gisn Group for the four-year period 2023-2026.

Tayebati commented:

Image source

I am very satisfied with this appointment, which represents not only a great personal gratification, but also an important recognition for the quality of research at the University of Camerino.

[Prof S.K. Tayebati]

If Tayebati was chosen for the quality of his research, you can imagine what is the average in the field of neuromorphology in Italy, dear readers.

The next paper sees Tomassoni as the corresponding author, about nothing less than the magic properties of cherries in preventing obesity‐related risks. This one might be the maiden corresponding authorship of Tomassoni’s long and inglorious career. He was appointed associate professor just a year before this paper was accepted, and I have concerns:

Micioni Di Bonaventura MV, Martinelli I, Moruzzi M, Micioni Di Bonaventura E, Giusepponi ME, Polidori C, Lupidi G, Tayebati SK, Amenta F, Cifani C, Tomassoni D* Brain alterations in high fat diet induced obesity: effects of tart cherry seeds and juice Nutrients (2020) doi: 10.3390/nu12030623

Hippocampus sections from CHOW rats (fed with a standard diet) and DJS rats (fed with high‐fat diet + tart cherry seeds powder + juice) largely overlap.
Western blot analysis for VCAM‐1 in the frontal cortex (A) and hippocampus (B), but the actin controls are the same

Hopefully an avalanche of retractions will prevent people like Tayebati, Tomassoni and Sabbatini from being promoted to full professors. But there is another character connected to this group whose rise should be blocked ASAP. I refer to the associate professor at the University of Florence Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli (6 papers in PubPeer for him so far), who has established a tight collaboration with the Amenta gang for the last few years.

The following article, having Di Cesare Mannelli as corresponding author, was flagged by Johanneshowellia crateriorum, a PubPeer commentor whom I wish to thank for helping with Italian scams. Look at the lovely outcome of the collaboration between Camerino and Florence people:

Tomassoni D, Di Cesare Mannelli L*, Bramanti V, Ghelardini C, Amenta F, Pacini A. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine exerts a neuroprotective effect in the sciatic nerve following loose ligation: a functional and microanatomical study Neural Regen Res (2018) doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.230297

Below is another problematic paper by the rising star Di Cesare Mannelli, published in that appalling outlet called Frontiers in Pharmacology:

Figure 5 (I): Carboxylated proteins blotting of the spinal cord. Lanes B and H are the same. B: SHAM SHR + saline solution; H: CCISHR + Pregabalin

The latter paper deserves a brief extra discussion. Frontiers is certainly a shady publisher, but at least it has one merit: it declares who the handling editor and the reviewers are. For the article above, the handling editor and the reviewers were all from Italian universities.

Now my question is: when congresses and meetings and editorials on the causes and mechanisms of science fraud take place or are written down, is there anyone who even deigns to propose solutions? Because one of the most obvious reasons for the acceptance of junk science is precisely the choice of editors and reviewers, who by no means should be people affiliated with institutions located in the same country where the authors work, or at least not all of them. Is there anyone who is still capable of putting two and two together?

Going back to Di Cesare Mannelli, this guy was awarded in 2016 a prize for a research project for pain treatment. Based on his strange assertion that intravenously administered “adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells” (vulgo: fat cells) relieve pain in rats (but only for 1-2 hours), he is now trying to enclose stem cells in a jelly they can’t get out from and to implant them under the skin to create permanent stem cell niches. No further comment.

Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli (image source)

Remarkably, in the last ten years Di Cesare Mannelli has published 24 papers a year on average. Not too bad for a guy who might be aged slightly above 40. He boasts 268 publications in total, an impressive curriculum indeed.

In the case of Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli are we dealing with a new Lorenzo De Medici? The assonance of the name and the city he belongs to provide an intriguing coincidence.

What do you say, dear readers? Shall I also “visit” Florence to figure out what it’s like over there?

From left: Tomassoni, Tayebati, Amenta, Sabbatini, Ricci

PS by LS

On this occasion, I shall recycle some older Friday Shorts material so you don’t have to look it up.

Here is more by Amenta, Ricci, Tayebati, Bronzetti, Sabbatini, Di Cesare Mannelli, et al:

Francesco Amenta , Paolo Barili , Elena Bronzetti , Laura Felici , Fiorenzo Mignini , Alberto Ricci LOCALIZATION OF DOPAMINE RECEPTOR SUBTYPES IN SYSTEMIC ARTERIES Clinical and Experimental Hypertension (2000) doi: 10.1081/ceh-100100077
Maurizio Sabbatini, Giovanni Bellagamba , Angela Casado , Seyed K. Tayebati , Domenico Venarucci , Francesco Amenta PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF TREATMENT WITH NICARDIPINE ON CEREBROVASCULAR TREE OF SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS Clinical and Experimental Hypertension (2001) doi: 10.1081/ceh-100001205 
Maurizio Sabbatini, Fiorenzo Mignini , Domenico Venarucci , José A. Vega , Francesco Amenta EFFECT OF NICARDIPINE TREATMENT ON THE EXPRESSION OF NEUROFILAMENT 200 KDa IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN OF SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS Clinical and Experimental Hypertension (2001) doi: 10.1081/ceh-100001204
Seyed Khosrow Tayebati , Daniele Tomassoni , Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Francesco Amenta Effect of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic (thioctic) acid on heart and kidney microvasculature in spontaneously hypertensive rats Clinical and Experimental Hypertension (2016) doi: 10.3109/10641963.2015.1047950

These small-region duplications inside of immunohistochemistry images most likely arose when the authors needed some illustrations for their made-up drivel, had none of their own, then stole them from other people’s publications, but had to erase their original labels and markings.

I chose to present you with Amenta’s papers in the Taylor & Francis journal Clinical and Experimental Hypertension for a reason. That reason being its Editor-in-Chief is Mustafa F. Lokhandwala, who since 1992 and until his retirement in 2019 used to be the Dean and executive Vice-Dean of the College of Pharmacy at the University of Houston, Texas. He became so rich that in 2021 he and his wife established an endowed professorship for the newly appointed chair of the Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy at his old faculty.

Lokhandwala is a bigwig with lots of money, and he obviously has better things to do than replying to Aneurus’ emails which he left unanswered. Thing is, Lokhandwala is an old collaborator of Amenta, they even organised a conference together in Camerino in 1996.

Here is a beautiful example of Lokhandwala’s collaboration with the Amenta gang:

Alberto Ricci , Francesco Amenta , Elena Bronzetti , Laura Felici , Tahir Hussain , Mustafa F. Lokhandwala Age-related changes of dopamine receptor protein immunoreactivity in the rat mesenteric vascular tree Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (2002) doi: 10.1016/s0047-6374(01)00361-x 

All three images likely have from a common origin, as illustrated by the colored boxes showing same identical structures. This would mean the images have been doctored to look different.
The two images share a common origin (see boxes of same color), and later digitally modified.”

This is of course insolent fraud. Luckily, a Taylor & Francis Ethics and Integrity Coordinator swiftly replied to my email and announced an investigation.

But what about the Elsevier journal Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, where Amenta, Tomassoni and Sabbatini have several more fake papers? Like this:

Maurizio Sabbatini , Daniele Tomassoni , Francesco Amenta Hypertensive brain damage: comparative evaluation of protective effect of treatment with dihydropyridine derivatives in spontaneously hypertensive rats Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (2001) doi: 10.1016/s0047-6374(01)00318-9 

It gets worse.

Maurizio Sabbatini, Daniele Tomassoni , Francesco Amenta Influence of treatment with Ca2+ antagonists on cerebral vasculature of spontaneously hypertensive rats Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (2001) doi: 10.1016/s0047-6374(01)00233-0 

Fig 2: Not a simple copy-paste!

For Sabbatini it was “a classical technical artefact, that can be found with a relative frequency in microphotographs“. More artefacts:

Maurizio Sabbatini , Assia Catalani , Claudia Consoli , Nunzio Marletta , Daniele Tomassoni, Roberto Avola The hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats: an animal model of vascular dementia? Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (2002) doi: 10.1016/s0047-6374(01)00362-1 

For Sabbatini, this was “a curious event“, another artefact “of aqueous crystal condensation that generate this formation in high-thick sections” caused by… the “antibodies available in the 2000s“. He also pointed out some differences between the fragments, thus actually blocking for himself the escape route of “innocent mistake of accidental image reuse” and proving someone’s intentional research fraud (we shan’t be pointing fingers here).

So what about these fake papers by Amenta’s gang in Mechanisms of Ageing and Development? Nothing. The Editor-in-Chief Efstathios Gonos, professor at the National Hellenic Research Foundation in Athens, loves to talk tough about research integrity while tolerating the worst kinds of fraud possible, including from Chinese papermills (at another journal he runs). Read about Gonos’ editorial achievements here:

And the German associate editor of Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, the University of Cologne professor Björn Schumacher, reacted as following when I tried to convince him to act on the Amenta and Sabbatini fraud: he warned me not to reproduce anything from his emails to me, and hinted to sue me if I do.

Schumacher doesn’t reply to my emails anymore, as a serious German professor he is busy virtue-signalling on Twitter:

Basically, Amenta’s papers in this Elsevier journal are safe. Let’s see about the rest.


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12 comments on “The microscopic talent of Prof Amenta

  1. Unintended, lovely artworks in the style of Piet Mondrian, by the authors of the scientific papers deconstructed.

    Italy may very well be unable to reform its scientific culture as too many people whose work can be deconstructed before your eyes are in senior and voting positions on university committees, where the will vote for themselves. The same goes for Spain.
    France is on the edge of being able to reform its scientific structures, but reality is usually worse than you think. Belgium follows France in these matters rather than its northern neighbour, the Netherlands, which apart from serious faking in psychology (which I think most Dutch people don’t take seriously to start with) is honest.


  2. France got a 6/10 for the dismissal of Oliver Bischof, but not his superior, Anne Dejean.

    One could say the the reason Oliver Bischof was dismissed was because the director general of the Pasteur Institute Paris, there are other Pasteur Institutes) is an English-speaking Welshman, Stewart Cole. Left up to the French alone who knows what would have happened?


  3. “The answer is always the same. The indicated frame evidences a classical technical artefact, that can be found with a relative frequency in microphotographs”

    You know, even if this bullshit was true, this statement admits that the data and technique is unusable and unreliable. Yet there it is anyway.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. I get the distinct impression that the academic class in Italy, an big knob Italians who have gone abroad (metastasis), is of a lower intellectual standard that the general population.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Jacques Robert

      Zebedee, do you mean that the average intellectual level of both countries has increased when they left?


  5. My comment was too complicated.

    To make it clearer. The intellectual level ( but not the cunning) of the academic class in Italy seems to be lower than that of the general population. Not surprising given the highly nepotistic nature of Italy.

    The intellectual level (but not the cunning) of the big knob Italians who went abroad seems to be lower than that of the general population of wherever they went.

    In the U.S.A. the fact that people like Carlo Croce still cannot speak English very well gives him an advantage as people are loath to appear xenophobic when non sequiturs come out of his mouth. Nonsense is passed off as a problem of language fluency.


    • Jacques Robert

      Sorry, Zebedee, it was a joke: I had understood, but I could not help doing it; it’s inspired from the Will Rogers phenomenon, against which we’re used to warn young clinical researchers when making cutoffs between patients’ groups. The original joke is:
      “When the Okies left Oklahoma and moved to California, they raised the average intelligence level in both states”.


    • It’s not that Americans shine with intelligence to pay someone like Croce 800k dollars a year.


  6. When you think Sabbatini has already reached the peak of fraudulence, suddenly the limit is moved further downwards:


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