Research Reproducibility Smut Clyde

Fusion is a dish best served cold

"...there are no longer any batches of the palladium used by Fleischmann and Pons (because the supplier now uses a different manufacturing process)..." -FuF wisdom

We are back in congratulating the EU Commission in investing €10 million into the research on Cold Fusion, this time Smut Clyde takes over.

He will introduce you to several quacks and an occasional actual criminal, to complement the learned gentlemen of cold fusion “science” like the EU-funded Francesco Celani whom I introduced before. I am sure the expertise of these characters will be hotly appreciated by the academic partners of the two new FET research projects by the EU Commission (Hermes and CleanHME). Those are about reviving the 1989 discovery of Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, which was definitely never research fraud but Cold Fusion, or rather low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) or hydrogen–metal energy (HME), as it is called nowadays to avoid ridicule. I personally prefer the acronym “FuF” (pronounced fooff, from Italian “fusione fredda”), which was established by the mitica Sylvie Coyaud. FuF is truly the right way to describe these people.

Before I pass the microphone to Smut Clyde: I previously mentioned a British FuF website dedicated to Cold Fusion and Celani, named after the late FuF prophet Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project, and now also dabbing in quack cures against COVID-19. It briefly went completely offline just when Celani’s EU Funding began, but now the man in charge, Bob W. Greenyer B. Eng (Hons.), put it back online, possibly just to spite Schneider. Greenyer commented under the previous article and educated me about the mystery why no actual nuclear fusion radiation can be detected when Cold Fusion happens in his and his fellow Fuffers’ (italian: fuffo (singular), fuffi (plural), there is no feminine form because they all are male) skilled hands. Turn out, it’s magic radiation, namely:

the dishevelment of what Ken Radford Shoulders called Exotic Vacuum Objects (EVOs). A Japanese nuclear scientist Takaaki Matsumoto, who eventually conceded in 2001 in Fusion Technology that EVOs were likely the cause of what he had seen since 1989, talked about the non-standard radiation coming out that fooled scintillators and GM tubes.

Those exotic vacuum objects can even be generated by common weasels, believe it or not (or maybe the weasels are the exotic vacuum objects?). You see, Greenyer explained:

When the LHC was switched on and basically died immediately requiring a 9 month repair, Francesco Celani was called in to give guidance on the damage they found (not disclosed to public) which some CERN scientists had recognised as similar to marks found in LENR research. It is very likely that these marks were due to EVO strike marks.

Asked to provide proof for Celani’s involvement with CERN, Greenyer went silent. But Sylvie Coyaud informed me that this fuffone or rather this capo di tutti fuffi officially had nothing to do with the Large Hadron Collider and that Celani’s last actual association with CERN took place 40 years ago. Also, in 2012, Celani gave a somewhat bizarre lecture at CERN about FuF progress, including the work of his FuF-arch-competitor Andrea Rossi (whom Smut Clyde will tell you about in a moment). So that fuffo Greenyer apparently made things up, as they all seem to do.

From Celani’s 2012 lecture at CERN

His parting words to me were:

I suggest you spend at least 200 hours studying LENR, over the course of a few months, so you have a clue when you want to discuss the science with anything approaching credibility.”

Neither myself nor Smut Clyde can be bothered. So here we go.


Fusion is a dish best served cold

By Smut Clyde

there are no longer any batches of the palladium used by Fleischmann and Pons (because the supplier now uses a different manufacturing process),[148]

This is a familiar experience in chemistry, where reagents are always undergoing strange irreproducible transformations from the alchemy of time or some unknown contaminant, so that later batches from the same supplier no longer effect the same outcome and Mr Hyde cannot change back into Dr Jeckyll. It must be a tradition, or an old charter or something. The palladium electrodes are the electrochemical equivalent, and because the suppliers in their foolishness changed the process of manufacture, the secret of Cold Fusion is lost forever.

Which leads us to 1989, and to Fleischmann and Pons. F & P had the notion that when they electrolyzed heavy water, encouraging O2- ions to congregate around the anode and D+ ions around the cathode, the deuterium nuclei would infiltrate the palladium where the metallic lattice would force them into close propinquity. Deuterium nuclei do not like to be in one another’s company (on account of the electrostatic repulsion between same-charged particles, increasing as the inverse square of distance) and in the universe of mainstream physics, to bring them into sufficient proximity to overlap and fuse into a single helium nucleus requires an environment of pressure and temperature that have many zeros after them… as found in the neighbourhood of a fission waterhead or when you set the controls for the heart of the sun. F & P were able to inform the world that their one clever palladium-electrode trick was enough, according to their estimates of electrolysis-cell temperature.

Any observations of a phenomenon (plus the new physics introduced to explain it) are flawed, somewhere, if they predict the non-existence of the observer. In this case, the reported heat output should have been accompanied by a large neutron flux, incompatible with the continued metabolic activity of F & P. Some credulity was required.

In their defense, ‘exotic routes to fusion‘ was part of the Zeitgeist then and not just a Prog-Rock album by Caravan or Pentangle. Muon-catalyzed and quark-catalyzed fusion found their way into popular culture in the course of the 1970s and 1980s, and even ‘monopole catalysis’ (for values of ‘popular culture’ that include ‘engineering-porn science fiction). As evidence for this assertion I adduce the inside art and the splendidly lurid cover of the 1976 serialisation of ‘Minotaur in a Mushroom Maze’.

Now these are tricky experiments to conduct, because energy is flowing into the cell anyway (the electrolysis current). Also because packing nuclei into a metal lattice is a kind of battery, storing up energy from that current and requiring little excuse to release it again in a surge. So it seems in retrospect that F & P were all wrong about the physics but physicists were reluctant to dismiss their work because they must have known what they were doing with the electrochemistry, while chemists were reluctant to dismiss their work (even through they were all wrong about the electrochemistry) because they must have known what they were doing with the physics.

Anyway, replications were reported and retracted, and a glorious saga ensured. It was a saga with much to teach about the sociology of Pathological Science, and the individual psychology of self-deception. There were patent lawyers, and experimental conditions left unspecified, and obstinance in the face of non-replication, and straw-clutching at any random anomaly. One single but consistent anomaly counts for a lot even if the theories around it are contradictory and incoherent; while conversely, a coherent new paradigm of physics can count for a lot even if the observations it explains are fragmentary and unreliable… but you do need one or the other.

The subculture of Cold Fusion True Believers share a radiant vision of a world transformed by limitless, decentralised energy sources (a vision prefigured by Jack Williamson’s ‘The Equalizer’, of a neo-agrarian Libertarian utopia that awaits once the nuclear-energy monopoly crumbles and the cities are abandoned, though with the added appeal of flying cars and the Climate Crisis dispelled). The vision keeps them going, even after thirty years of the saga — publishing their own on-line journals (notably the J. of Nuclear Physics, and the J. of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science for those who prefer to be labelled with ‘CMNS’) and meeting at regular Cold Fusion Conferences.

F & P’s specific technique and theories are generally repudiated, even as the believers take advantage of their main achievement of opening up territory for the Cold Rush. The acronym LENR (Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions) is preferred to the now-deprecated ‘Cold Fusion’… or even CMNS (Condensed Matter Nuclear Science), deleting the very word ‘fusion’ in favour of ‘Anomalous Heat Effect‘, a less-triggering and more deniable euphemism. Electrolysis cells are no longer a thing, with more extreme conditions and other metals like tungsten or nickel or copper/nickel/manganese alloy in the role of match-maker for the reluctant union of nuclei.

LENR might seem like a very dead horse indeed, yet it can now afford a better class of flogging. ‘Ascoli65’ alerted OcaSapiens to a windfall: €5.5mill of funds for ‘CleanHME’, a 14-country EU consortium

to develop a new, clean, safe, compact and very efficient energy source based on Hydrogen-Metal and plasma systems, which could be a breakthrough for both private use as well as for industrial applications. The new energy source could be employed both as a small mobile system or alternatively as a stand-alone heat and electricity generator.

Accompanied by €4mill for ‘HERMES’, a 6-country consortium, which cites the failure of similar research from Google as the rationale for trying other combinations of temperature and materials.


Breakthrough zero-emissions heat generation with hydrogen-metal systems
In pursuit of the cold fusion dream as a solution to the world’s energy needs

This is not the subculture’s only success in coaxing research grants, for funding bodies judge applications on the criterion of ‘activity’ (conferences and on-line journals) because weighing actual credibility is outside their core competencies. This is another factor that sustains researchers. Mainly, though, they are sustained by faked claims, for the field combines the worst of nanotechnology and perpetual motion, attracting fraudsters and conmen like ions attracted to a palladium electrode.

I will not try to summarize the full 30 years, enlivened though it is by the presence of Nobel Laureates like Carlo Rubbia, who took the original reports sufficiently convincing to commission a replication attempt (in his capacity as President of ENEA). Also of Emilio Del Giudice, maven of hand-wavy water-bending, a quantum physicist who had gone completely Emeritus and later teamed up with Luc Montagnier to be stupid together. There is no room for any of that. I am only here to survey a few of the current players.

Del Giudice communicating with the genetic memory of water

Do not think, by the way, that Italian researchers and funding bodies have a monopoly on cold-fusion gullibility. They are over-represented, though in the ‘Fusion Freddo’ archives at OcaSapiens, where science / skeptic blogger Sylvie Coyaud is custodian of the Buffalo Park.

In Shoreditch, the Church of St Leonard, patron saint of Cold Fusion

1. The Hydrinos

We begin with the ‘hydrino’ narrative, invented by a Dr Randy Mills and commercialised through Brilliant Light Power Inc. This notion has progressed far beyond mere ‘fusion’ in the extravagance of its claims but it emerged from the same monetarised milieu, with Mills in his first 1991 press statement introducing hydrinos as the real explanation for F & P’s results. He postulated that the ‘hydrogen atoms’ known to mainstream physicists are merely an unstable excited state… the real lowest-energy state of hydrogen is the hydrino, inert and nigh-unobservable (unless they are in fact the Cold Dark Matter of speculative cosmology). Arc-light plasma conditions suffice to collapse hydrogen into hydrinos and harvest the energy difference.

Physicists were unanimous in their hoots of derision. To Stephen Ritter, though, writing in 2016 on 25 years of the Cold Fusion Dream (in an editorial in Chemical & Engineering News, reprinted in Scientific American), hydrinos sounded perfectly plausible because physics already has room for exotic phenomena like Muonium. In addition, Chewbacca is not a Wookie yet he lives on Endor, which makes no sense, therefore you must acquit.

Evidently Mills is a perfectionist… at the end of each round of fund-raising, when a working prototype is unveiled, his dissatisfaction with its lingering inefficiency or aesthetic shortcomings prevents him from mass-producing generators and he sets out on another round of soliciting investment, with a revised design. Meanwhile, no-one involved in these projects is visibly worried about triggering a chain reaction of hydrogen collapse and turning Earth’s oceans into a nova (leading, again, to the non-existence of any observers). They all know it’s just a grift.

BLP was previously BlackLight Power, and before that, HydroCatalysis Inc, giving me an opportunity to link to a Shriekback video.




2. The Shroud of Turin

Moving right along, meet piezonuclear reactions, the brainchild of Professori Alberto Carpinteri and Fabio Cardone. The premise here is that nuclear transmutations can occur simply from fracturing the right kind of rock. So again this is not cold fusion stricto sensu but it is too good to omit, as piezonuclear claims inspired some useful booty in Fallout. It also provides another link to OcaSapiens. Interested parties proposed to harness the Carpinteri / Cardone technology to “solve Italy’s economic crisis and the world’s energy crisis” by using rock-sourced neutrons to “burn” nuclear waste into inert elements and to “burn” €800 mill of waste money into inert piezonuclear reactors. Support came from neo-Fascists in politics and in the Italian armed forces.

Carpinteri’s research interests are admirably diverse. He is active in the Sindonology community of the Shroud of Turin faithful, contributing a theory that piezonuclear neutrons from a hypothetical earthquake in 33 CE were responsible for imprinting a human likeness onto a linen bedsheet from c. 1400 (and for invalidating carbon dating thereof). More relevantly here, he directed INRiM, the Italian National Institute of Metrological Research. His enthusiasm for investing that Institute’s resources and the time of his colleagues in a quest to validate his piezonuclear notions led to ridicule and resistance, and eventually to a lawsuit for defamation against Sylvie Coyaud, which did not go entirely to plan.

3. Rossi, “a brilliant psychopath”

Andrea Rossi’s “E-cat” reactors are the keystone of the LENR arch. Rossi settled on nickel as the ‘element of surprise’, the surprise being that it does not merely catalyse (at least in the current explanations), but also undergoes transmutation into copper.

Rossi has been caught frauding again and again, so that even bothering to ridicule his claims is to commit dead-horse flagellation, but we must remember that the dead horse has already been buried repeatedly, each time clawing or hooving its way out of the grave to resume its zombie rampage. His career is the entire LENR history, in microcosm.

Some of these equine interments occurred in 2011, 2012, 2016: the semi-skeptics at New Energy Times have provided a helpful timeline. Fooled by a faked demonstration, the well-meaning but naive venture-capitalists at Industrial Heat gave Rossi $11 mill to begin mass production of reactors, which he invested in Florida real estate before pre-emptively suing IH for not giving him more. He licensed his technology to a Greek company, Defkalion Green Technologies, in a deal that went tits-up in an exchange of recriminatory accusatory law-suits when they tried to reverse-engineer what he was up do, and the eventual disappearance of Defkalion. Like Mills, Rossi moves from one prototype to the next, staking out new territory with the audacity of a Go Master without pausing to consolidate any given breakthrough by bringing that design into commercial production. He refuses to take ‘Yes’ for an answer.

Fortunately Rossi has enthusiastic supporters, who are determined to feature in documentaries about the ‘Sunk-Cost Fallacy‘ and are always primed to accept excuses… the absence of the promised factory for mass-producing E-Cats merely showed that production had been outsourced to the US (for instance). One defender pointed out that the improbability that Rossi being merely a con-man, maintaining his grift across decades. “The Sinking of the Cost Fallacy” would make a good tragic ballad, just saying.


“It seems unrealistic that Rossi could be weaving such an enormous web of lies: He would have to be a brilliant psychopath to perpetuate the story for so many years.”

Rossi & friends, from Skeptical Inquirer

Those supporters include senior academics and physicists, whose laboratory experience did not prepare them to spot professional deception and misdirection (such as the use of doubled wires or the earth wire in a power cable to siphon in electricity from outside). For a time, another Nobel Laureate (Brian Josephson) was numbered among them. There were credulous journalists, notably Mats Lewan, and even the legendary cartoonist Matt Howarth (whose ‘Changes’ graphic novel was serialised in Heavy Metal in the 1970s / 80s), who lent his talents to illustrating a graphic-novel explanation of Cold Fusion.

So Rossi continues to inspire and dominate the field, with new designs and new calls for investment, much sought-after for the conferences. Before his ascension to the Cold Fusion accretion disk, Rossi was selling magic heat-to-electricity thermocouple generators to the US army, blaming their failure to function on a subcontractor who screwed up the manufacturing. Before that his income came from a scheme to magically convert industrial waste into clean green biofuel, which culminated in prison sentences for fraud and money-laundering, while other people received the bill for cleaning up his pollution.

4. Santilli’s Hardonic Reactor

I vacillate on whether to touch on Ruggero Maria Santilli, despite his own prominence in the magical transformation of industrial waste into clean green biofuel MagneGas. For although Santilli has sued Pepijn van Erp (for making fun of Santilli negative-optics telescopes for anti-matter astronomy) and sued erstwhile co-author Fabio Cardone (for having Alternative Physics theories that are too much like Santilli’s), and sued other cold-fusion enthusiasts (for failing to promote his theories), he has not sued Sylvie Coyaud. Santilli’s practical demonstrations of tool-shed nucleosynthesis go far beyond the picayune creation of helium, though it is not clear from the writings of his followers and sockpuppets whether the physics involves “neutroids” or “magnecular bonds“.

5. Brillouin Hot Tub Boiler

Brillouin Energy, Brilliant Light wannabees. Their point of difference is to add “Q-pulse electrical stimulation” to the mix, which push the electrode-bound hydrogen atoms into their lower-energy state by merging electrons and nuclei into hydrinos neutroids neutrons. Having reported a four-fold return on energy input (comparable to a heat pump), the company triumphantly upgraded this to two-fold. The main evidence that Brillouin provide for the functionality of their heat sources consists of press releases about anonymous Pacific / Asian industrialists licensing the technology, revolutionising the world in 2013 and again in 2018.

A recent communiqué explained the lack of progress:


“Sometimes things get worse before they get better. We tried for years to find a way to use existing commercially available materials to make catalyst rods that meat commercial requirements. The best results of that search were still not up to commercial requirements. We know that the technology can be made commercially useful. Years ago we had made a catalyst rod with leftovers of a sample of material that was more than a decade old and was never produced in volume. We know what the properties of the applied material are and why it produced the extremely powerful results that it did. It also meshes with the underlying physics as we understand it. We are now working on developing our own material in house. We are making good progress but extremely slowly due to a lack of funds. I invite you and or anyone you know to invest in Brillouin Energy.”

Previous success proved to be contingent on a crucial material, strange irreproducible transformations from the alchemy of time, a change in manufacturing process, supply exhausted. It was that old tradition again.

6. Fleischmann on chloroquine

How could the Cold Fusion belief system be enriched even further? Why, by combining it with discredited magical-thinking COVID-19 cures, for added maverickritude.

The Martin Fleischman Memorial Project (MFMP), a.k.a. Quantum Heat, is a collaboration of (apparently meanwhile just two) enthusiasts whose social-media output alternates between Cold Fusion communiqués and dispatches about treating COVID with hydroxychloroquine (or Ivermectin, or both), flirting along the way with far-right white supremacists. All punctuated by invocatory appeals to ‘the New Fire’ – a shibboleth or symbol of the transformational dream trademarked by our man Rossi, though it sounds ominous to me, with its eschatological, Pentacostal undertones.

Stolen Oglaf frame

The MPMF have a FaceBorg page and a Twiddle account. Also a company, incorporated in October 2012, and a manifesto from the same year, espousing their vision of an Live Open Science framework for removing the inconsistencies and unreliability that had held back LENR for so long.

Narrator: Rossi and Defkalion were revealed as scams

The idea was for citizen-scientists around the world to use the same specification and assemble their own Celani Cells for grass-roots replication – Francesco Celani’s design being most robust in terms of results, and most reproducible. Enthusiasts could vary parameters and zero in on what works and what doesn’t, reporting their findings and suggestions for further experiments in comment threads at QuantumHeat.org, for total transparency and an end to proprietorial secrecy.

In order to get rid of the persistent criticism of the traditional physics of this phenomenon, we are doing everything we can to carry out the project as transparently and understandably as possible. We want to create a project by people for all of humanity. For this reason, we will publish all relevant information about the process, the construction plans, the current data and the results here.

I wanted to offer the suggestion that an important parameter to vary is the strength of Crank Magnetism, except that in an unusual display of totally transparent respect for the contributors, the website closed down a few weeks ago and all those archives were scrubbed from the Intertubes (with backed-up pages at Archive.is as the only trace).

In consequence, to read a triumphant report of the successful replication in 2016, we must take ourselves to one of Mats Lewan’s websites.

Here “successful replication” takes on the meaning of “transient experimental glitch achieved with very non-Celani apparatus and ‘fuel’ rather than ‘catalysis’.” Celani’s results were harder to replicate than expected, and there had been a roller-coaster ride of melt-downs set-backs and encouraging suggestions. But perhaps there is an explanation… those results, once again, were contingent on old materials, no longer obtainable, supply exhausted, it must be a tradition.

What we are aware of but that is not publically known to date, is that the wire he used in NI Week and ICCF-17 was 700 layers. We have discovered that the higher the number of layers, the faster the loading, the greater the R/R0 indicating hydrogen absorption and the higher the excess power. So why are we not using 700 layers? The simple answer is that there is not any, that wire was made with some old stock of ISOTAN44 – “Isabellehutte” from the 1970s who’s coating allowed 700 layers to be built on the wire as substrate. Modern stock does not allow this because the process that was making the material changed, with around 450 layers being the upper limit. It is our understanding that, since wires with around 400 layers is reproducible, appear to produce significant effects and there has not been the resources to explore what made the old stock so special, pursuit of recreating 700 layer wires on tight budgets has been unjustifiable.

7. Galileo and Tesla

With post titles like “The Genius of Celani“, it should be clear that the MFMP group hold Francesco Celani in high regard, barely this side of idolatry. Celani in turn was an active collaborator, although his website glosses over “his previous participation in the Live Open Science (LOS) methodology” as a past indiscretion, confined to 2012.

Celani features often enough in Sylvie’s Fusione Fredda posts to deserve his own tag. He is (or was) Vice President of the International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, and is frequently compared to Galileo (or even Tesla), possibly even by non-Celani writers. Andrea Rossi declined Celani’s offers of assistance, regarding him as a competitor rather than a collaborator. I hope Celani does not forget his old MFMP friends or disown them as an embarrassment, now that he has hit the big time as a member of the CleanHME consortium.

Update 11.12.2020. [Smut Clyde remembered more about The Genius Celani and shared it in comemnts below. I think it’s worth being posted here -LS]:

Cupriavidus metallidurans according to bacterial taxonomists… …repurposed by Celani’s supporters to illustrate his claims.

First, I should mention the serendipitous discovery in 2000 of a new bacterial species (or maybe two), which lives in the heavy-water solvents of Celani’s cells and disrupts the hydrogen nucleochemistry on the wires, as one of the explanations when LENR fails to replicate. Celani started using alcohol in his solvents to deter the growth of the extremophile bacteria. The presence of concentrated alcohol goes a long way to explain the chaotic, unsafe conditions in Celani’s laboratory.

There was talk of harnessing Ralstonia detusculanense (which seems to be a rediscovery of Ralstonia metallidurans, later reclassified as Cupriavidus metallidurans) to bioremediate industrial sites contaminated with heavy metals, but nothing seemed to come of it.

After 25 years of paying for LENR research that went nowhere except for serendipitous bacteria and irreproducible anomalies, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and then ENEA stopped funding it. In 2015 INFN declined to extend Celani’s employment after retirement age, and assigned his laboratory to someone else – just when he was on the brink of success! – and there was GREAT AGITA within the fraternity (here, here and here).

Evidently this was persecution on a level with that time when the Inquisition imprisoned Galileo and showed him the instruments of torture, explaining why Celani and Galileo are so often mentioned together.

One Umberto Dosselli, Director of the LNR branch of INFN, came in for odium, or perhaps opprobrium – I am never sure which is which. A letter from Celani was circulated, rebutting the so-called Ripani report (on the state of Celani’s laboratory and research) which preceded these tragic events, though he did not make the report itself available, so we cannot judge the thoroughness of the rebuttal.

Mustn’t forget the nomination of Francesco Celani and the MFMP for the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize, for inventing Open Science (which was totally not invented in 1998), read here, here and here. Celani informs us that they were nominated again in 2015. I cannot state with any certainty that the nominations were made by people recognised by the Nobel Committee as valid sources.

R. M. Santilli says “Only two nominations? Pshaw! Beginners!” Santilli has been nominating himself for Chemistry and Physics Nobels (through various proxies and sock-puppets) since 1985. In 1987 his sockpuppetdrawer organised themselves as an “International Committee for the Nobel Prize Nomination of Prof. R. M. Santilli” to regularise the process, as an alternative to the nomination pathways recognised by the Nobel Committee per se. The website he set up to curate and showcase the nominations seems to have lapsed.

In older not-news from 2019, Mats Lewin gave Rossi one last chance to front up with the evidence that buyers were lining up for his E-Cat and Hot-Cat heat generators – buyers who would vouch for their functionality. HA HA not really. In fact he proved that Rossi was legit and totally not a fraudster by inviting his loyal readers to answer an on-line poll.

Here to conclude is Figure 2.1, depicting a happy robot maintaining the magnets within an accelerator for neutrino-beam generation, from ‘Neutrino exploration of the earth‘ (De Rújula, Glashow, Wilson & Charpak) – my favourite physics paper EVER. It is not at all relevant to the post but it shows that I was reading Physics Reports in 1983, just in case anyone questions my credentials.

Some early Tangerine Dream is also a nice way to finish.


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46 comments on “Fusion is a dish best served cold

  1. Smut Clyde

    The more I read of Celani’s papers, the more he seems to be influenced by Jack Williamson and his literary invention of the Barstow Equalizer.

    “Just a solenoid.” Cameron nodded. “But wound in a certain way, not helically, so that its field slightly alters the co-ordinates of space and slightly changes the interaction of mass and energy. The atomic particles of the solenoid are equalized, as your father termed the process. The converted energy appears as direct current in the wire.

    From “The role of forced, active gas, flux for the generation of AHE in LENR experiments“:

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  2. Smut Clyde

    Crivens! Everything changed in 2015 when a holy relic was unearthed. A length of the irreplaceable palladium wire, which would finally make it possible to replicate the Pons-Fleischmann results [again].

    The MFMP has been offerred something no one knew existed, something priceless and which could reveal critical secrets many in the LENR field have been seeking for over a quarter century.

    Before Martin Fleischmann left the US, he personally gave a trusted friend an original pre-1989 Johnson Matthey palladium wire – the very same as used in experiments that led to that fateful announcement of a new primary energy source that came to be known as cold fusion.

    He has held this secret all these years until now. We checked today with Mike McKubre, Vitorio Violante and Melvin Miles if there was any known public metallurgical and elemental / isotopic characterisation of this material, the answer was a resounding no.

    It is known that the early attempts to replicate the Pons and Fleischmann effect mostly failed due to the purity and processing of ‘palladium’ used. In fact ENEA has been trying to establish what additives and structures are critical to creating the effect for more than 2 decades. Many of the principal research labs working in the field are trying to establish the correct crystal shapes, sizes, orientation etc. and chemistry.

    In our own nickel powder / hydrogen research, we have tried to get the purest nickel possible – but have failed to see any excess heat. Now we know from our recent elemental analysis of Dr. Parkhomov’s Nickel, that there is high concentrations of Carbon and Oxygen on the surface, elements also found in Rossi’s fuels.

    The unique opportunity we have been honoured with is profoundly important, and there is not a person we asked at the conference that were not falling over themselves to help in what ever way they could. Ultimately it is down to the current owner to decide exactly what happens but from the available piece, which is about the thickness of a toothpick and between 7 and 8 cm long, the current plan is to

    Use 3 X 2mm samples to characterise structure, isotopic constitution etc.
    Run at least two 2cm segments in Pons and Fleischmann cells, copied from the original and/or use the original cell.
    Reserve remainder

    We will auction the ownership rights of the post run, post analysis 2cm segments in a one of a kind, never to be repeated auction. This is an unrepeatable opportunity to own the only known samples of this historic precious metal.

    This auction, along with the auction of the donated 1 ounce Pd 1989 “Cold Fusion” coins is design to raise enough money the help ensure a fully faithful replication that will be conducted by someone who is not currently a member of the MFMP and who is a very experienced experimentalist. The work will be conducted in France with the help of Jean-Paul Biberian and all data will public.

    We must work with the best resources on the planet to ensure that this materials secrets are revealed for all. It is wonderful to be a part of something that will yield critical data for advancement of the field.

    More information to be published about the Vindication program.

    The name of the current owner and how he came to be entrusted with the electrode will be revealed in time, right now, given the incredible importance to maintain security, we have been asked to hold off on publishing that information.

    We want to take this opportunity however, to publicly thank the donor and curator of this material for coming forward.

    Like

  3. Pingback: Cold Fusion by EU Commission: a Fleischmann-Pons revival – For Better Science

  4. Pingback: FuF: calore anomalo nel vuoto esotico - Ocasapiens - Blog - Repubblica.it

  5. Judging for the high school level of writing and scatological derision and lack of depth in the analysis shown by your guest author, I think he will appreciate a comment about how worthy of his screen name he is.

    smut
    /smʌt/

    noun
    1.
    a small flake of soot or other dirt or a mark left by one.
    “all those black smuts from the engine”
    2.
    a fungal disease of cereals in which parts of the ear change to black powder.
    “a few bad crop years with smut and drought and frost”

    Like

    • Leave Smut Clyde alone, he is just 14 years old and has no facial hair growth yet! And stop insulting his parents, Dr. Vulgarius and Mrs Profanita Clyde.

      Like

    • Smut Clyde

      Sad now. I went to considerable effort to remove all my usual sterculian language from this post but I am accused of scatology all the same.
      I may be guilty of eschatology but that’s quite different.

      Like

      • Certainly your style of writing could be considered as a sign of the end times, by anyone so inclined.

        Like

      • Smut Clyde

        ‘Immamentizing the Eschaton’ is just my day-job.

        Like

  6. The phony “Doctor” Rossi has actually changed his lie. He freely admitted on his insane rossilivecat.com blog that “cold fusion does not exist” and that “after 20 years of hard work” he has never had a working “cold fusion” device of any kind. From his blog on 22 AUG 2019:

    Giovanni
    August 22, 2019 at 9:41 AM
    Dr Rossi,
    Wpuld [sic] you consider your effect a form of “cold fusion”?
    Giovanni

    Andrea Rossi
    August 22, 2019 at 2:11 PM
    Giovanni:
    No. I arrived to think that cold fusion does not exist.

    At this point of our theoretical and technological development, after 20 years of hard work, we think that cold fusion does not exist. I am sorry, but I feel us lightyears far from the LENR community, to which we, actually, never belonged. My effect depends on atom’s potentials that have nothing to do with cold fusion or LENR. This, by the way, is clearly put in evidence in my paper here: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_anf [sic]_long_range_particle_interactions. One thing I must admit, though: my work initiated inspired by the idea of cold fusion launched by F&P and my former works started from that theory, but after tens of thousands of experiments and twenty years of study I changed idea. Like Christopher Columbus, who thought he had reached India, but eventually it has been discovered it was America. We reached important results and much more important we are close to reach with a technology that with cold fusion has nothing to do. As a matter of fact, we do not have any fusion.

    Warm Regards,
    A.R. [Emphasis added.]

    So not only did “Doc” Rossi abandon the entire LENR community, but he was also kind enough to kick them all in the gonads on his way out the door. Pasta fazool!

    To continue his “Energy Catalyzer” (“E-Cat”) scam without any “cold fusion’ or “the LENR,” Rossi came up with a brand new lie. He is now the Elon Musk of “zero-point energy” (or as he risibly calls it, “point zero energy.”)

    This pathetic charlatan who actually claims to have a “Doctorate” and a “Bachelor of Science” degree from his high school in Italy is the sole author of a non-refereed paper published by ResearchGate. Someone obviously wrote this “paper” for Rossi because he is incapable of writing it himself.

    Here is “Doc” Rossi’s masterpiece: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long-range_particle_interactions

    The most hilarious aspect is that Rossi has found some service (surely a bunch of crooks) who can falsify ResearchGate statistics like Reads and Recommendations.

    Here are the most recent stats (as of 10 DEC) for Rossi’s paper (published in January 2019):

    Research Interest (RI score): 303.1
    Citations: 0 (in over 22 months!)
    Recommendations: 506
    Reads: 52,233
    Comments: 20 (from over 52,000 readers!!)

    Clearly, these stats are all faked. Rossi also moved several other non-refereed papers from arXiv to ResearchGate. Unsurprisingly, they also have fake stats. The “E-Cat SK” paper itself is just garbage.

    On a happier note, “Doc” Rossi now claims that he is the author of the most widely read paper in the history of ResearchGate [over 52,000 Reads(!)].

    Like

    • Smut Clyde

      The Fellowship of FuF need Rossi. He doesn’t need them, though he is happy to use them.

      That said, it would come as no surprise if he retcons his claims back to “LENR did it” when he smells the €10 million in the hands of CleanHME + Hermes, which they could be sharing with him.

      Like

    • Hi fredz777,

      I’m sorry, but I don’t understand all this emphasis on Rossi. He openly admitted that his “work initiated inspired by the idea of cold fusion launched by F&P”. So Fleischmann and Pons were the real inspirers of his adventure in the field of exotic free energy, as they have been for almost all the fusionists mentioned in this post.

      For example, at the very beginning of a recent interview (1), Celani said: “Io lavoro in questo campo cosiddetto, anche in maniera non completa, fusione fredda da 30 anni, dall’inizio. E ho iniziato questo tipo di lavoro per trovare un qualche errore sugli esperimenti fatti 30 anni fa dai professori Fleischmann e Pons. Errori veri non ne ho trovati, altrimenti non avrei continuato, … ”

      In October 1992, when F&P presented the sensational results of the Four-cells Boil-Off experiment, Celani was in Nagoya, attending the ICCF3, therefore he had the opportunity to watch the F&P video, which actually shows that each cell, at the beginning of its emptying phase, was mostly filled with foam, not with liquid water, as erroneously assumed in their calculations (for details and references see my comment in previous post (2)).

      Now, almost 30 years after that bogus experiment, the so called F&P effect is the specific object of a research project funded with 4 million Euros by the EU Commission.

      So, I think that those who want to denounce this waste of public resources should better focus their attention on F&P and their sloppy 1992 experiment, rather than Rossi.

      (1) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxt72t3g_NQ
      (2) https://forbetterscience.com/2020/12/08/cold-fusion-by-eu-commission-a-fleischmann-pons-revival/#comment-103549

      Like

      • I agree completely that F&P were the root cause of over 30 years of LENR lunacy. However, Rossi was the clown prince of “the LENR” for the last 10 years or so, and he was the only LENR loon who was brazen, venal, and fraudulent enough to claim to have a working “1-MW LENR reactor” and to make US$11.5 million by selling this piece of garbage to gullible “Customers.” For him to deny the very existence of “the LENR” in favor of some kooky “virtual particle” nonsense is a gut punch to the entire LENR community, almost all of whom supported Rossi to the bitter end.

        Like

      • So Ascoli, what’s your take on NASA’s Lattice Confinement Fusion approach, also “deluded” followers of Fleischmann and Pons? as you so passionately, insistently and astonishing wrongly claim?

        https://www1.grc.nasa.gov/space/science/lattice-confinement-fusion/

        Like

      • @ fredz777

        This post begins by mentioning the 10 millions Euros granted by the EU to projects related to cold fusion. The description of the HERMES project (1) begins with these sentences (underlining added): “In 1989, electrochemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons made headlines with their claim to have produced excess heat using a simple apparatus working at room temperature. Their experiment involved loading deuterium in a palladium metal. As many experimenters failed to replicate their work, cold fusion remains a controversial topic in the scientific community.”

        Well, the topic is still controversial only because the scientific community has some interest in keeping it in this state, in fact any controversial topic is a potential occasion for more investigations and therefore a possible source of funding. Otherwise, if they had realized that F&P had mistaken foam for liquid, there would have been no more controversy about the unreality of their claims and 10 million Euros would still have been available to be used, or maybe wasted again, on other projects.

        As for Rossi, his denial of the existence of LENR is now a big relief to members of the CF/LENR community, not a punch.

        (1) https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/952184

        Like

      • @Ascoli65 Well, I respectfully disagree. This article discusses Rossi’s LENR fraud in some detail under item 3. Under the unwritten rule of LENR loons, almost none of the LENR pantheon (Hagelstein, Miley, McKubre, Nagel, etc.) would say anything bad about Rossi and just let him proceed with his pathetic fraud scheme. I think that is important to note, and Rossi made those LENR legends look like idiots. Why don’t you contact Nagel and ask him how Rossi’s “hundreds of LENR reactors” are doing now?

        Like

      • @fredz777

        most of the LENR legends you mentioned were in the small group of top 5 CF experts who urged the new DoE review on cold fusion (1).

        In 2004 – differently from what happened in 2011, when they didn’t say anything bad about Rossi – they played a very proactive role by deciding to place the F&P paper reporting the 1992 boil-off experiment at the top of the very restricted list of the 7 most representative and convincing CF documents issued to date (2).

        All of them was aware of the lab video, it was clearly mentioned in the F&P paper, and most of them were very familiar with Fleischmann, so it would have been their opportunity and duty to closely watch the video before including the “Simplicity Paper” among the documents selected for review.

        Therefore, for those who realize what F&P did in 1992, it was not Rossi who affected their scientific reliability. Everything that has happened in the CF/LENR field after the second DoE review, including the 10-years Rossi saga, is due to the misjudgment of the F&P work by the CF pantheon.

        (1) https://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/government/DOE2004/DOE-2004.shtml
        (2) https://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/government/DOE2004/7Papers.shtml

        Like

      • Again, I agree with almost everything you said. However, whether you like it or not, Rossi was the face of the LENR franchise for many years. Just ask him (a legend in his own mind) or any of the LENR pantheon. Rossi’s preposterous claim of a “1-MW LENR reactor” made the rest of the LENR loons look like mice with their mW “results.” Even today, if you type “LENR” into any search engine, “LENR Rossi” will show up as one of the options. Best of luck trying to stop the EU LENR freight train.

        Like

      • @ fredz777

        I agree that Rossi monopolized the attention of the CF/LENR galaxy in the period beginning from 2011. This can be considered the second chapter of the history of CF, after the first period dominated by F&P and their closest epigones.

        However, the publication of the Google study on Nature in May 2019 marks the beginning of a third chapter, which almost erased any residual interest in Rossi. This Google chapter can be considered as a return to the F&P’s one, due to their interest in re-evaluating the experiment of that first period, and EU funded projects are mostly a fallout of Google’s involvement in CF, as explicitly admitted by Pekka Peljo, the coordinator of HERMES project (1).

        I have no intention of stopping this train, how could I do it? Furthermore, the relative funds are part of the helicopter money needed right now to keep the European economy going, so they will be spent one way or another. It would already be a great success if the HERMES team will decide to include the F&P’s 1992 Boil-off experiment in the list of those tests that will be studied and replicated, as I had already proposed to the Google team (2).

        (1) https://forbetterscience.com/2020/12/08/cold-fusion-by-eu-commission-a-fleischmann-pons-revival/#comment-103940
        (2) https://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/thread/6050-team-google-wants-your-opinion-what-is-the-highest-priority-experiment-the-lenr/?postID=114454#post114454

        Like

  7. Smut Clyde

    I cannot sleep for the sense of guilt about omitting too much of Francesco Celani’s contributions to the saga, so these comments are a kind of Update.

    First, I should mention the serendipitous discovery in 2000 of a new bacterial species (or maybe two), which lives in the heavy-water solvents of Celani’s cells and disrupts the hydrogen nucleochemistry on the wires, as one of the explanations when LENR fails to replicate.
    https://www.openaccessrepository.it/record/18310?ln=en#.X9KW_tgzY2w

    Celani started using alcohol in his solvents to deter the growth of the extremophile bacteria.
    https://www.openaccessrepository.it/record/17938?ln=en#.X9KXW9gzY2w

    The presence of concentrated alcohol goes a long way to explain the chaotic, unsafe conditions in Celani’s laboratory.

    There was talk of harnessing Ralstonia detusculanense (which seems to be a rediscovery of Ralstonia metallidurans, later reclassified as Cupriavidus metallidurans) to bioremediate industrial sites contaminated with heavy metals, but nothing seemed to come of it.

    Like

  8. Smut Clyde

    After 25 years of paying for LENR research that went nowhere except for serendipitous bacteria and irreproducible anomalies, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and then ENEA stopped funding it. In 2015 INFN declined to extend Celani’s employment after retirement age, and assigned his laboratory to someone else – just when he was on the brink of success! – and there was GREAT AGITA within the fraternity.

    https://22passi.blogspot.com/2015/06/candidato-nobel-per-la-pace-nel-2014.html
    http://egooutpeters.blogspot.com/2015/06/how-could-we-help-francesco-celani.html
    https://www.energeticambiente.it/reazioni-nucleari-a-bassa-energia-fusione-fredda-/14763846-celani-lern-premio-nobel-pace-loro-boicottaggio.html

    Evidently this was persecution on a level with that time when the Inquisition imprisoned Galileo and showed him the instruments of torture, explaining why Celani and Galileo are so often mentioned together.

    One Umberto Dosselli, Director of the LNR branch of INFN, came in for odium, or perhaps opprobrium – I am never sure which is which. A letter from Celani was circulated, rebutting the so-called Ripani report (on the state of Celani’s laboratory and research) which preceded these tragic events, though he did not make the report itself available, so we cannot judge the thoroughness of the rebuttal.

    Like

  9. Leonid, you need to switch ISP, it’s the second time you claim not being able to reach a site that is perfectly accesible.

    Like

  10. Smut Clyde

    Mustn’t forget the nomination of Francesco Celani and the MFMP for the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize, for inventing Open Science (which was totally not invented in 1998).

    https://www.nextme.it/scienza/energia/7940-fusione-fredda-nobel-pace-fleishmann
    https://www.energeticambiente.it/reazioni-nucleari-a-bassa-energia-fusione-fredda-/14763846-celani-lern-premio-nobel-pace-loro-boicottaggio.html
    https://22passi.blogspot.com/2015/06/candidato-nobel-per-la-pace-nel-2014.html

    Celani informs us that they were nominated again in 2015. I cannot state with any certainty that the nominations were made by people recognised by the Nobel Committee as valid sources.

    R. M. Santilli says “Only two nominations? Pshaw! Beginners!” Santilli has been nominating himself for Chemistry and Physics Nobels (through various proxies and sock-puppets) since 1985. In 1987 his sockpuppetdrawer organised themselves as an “International Committee for the Nobel Prize Nomination of Prof. R. M. Santilli” to regularise the process, as an alternative to the nomination pathways recognised by the Nobel Committee per se. The website he set up to curate and showcase the nominations seems to have lapsed.
    https://web.archive.org/web/20191125075606/http://nobelprizeweb.com/

    Like

  11. Just out of curiosity, as you have managed to throw mud (for not using the appropriate word) to pretty much each and everyone involved in the field of research, why you haven’t included the more recent work of NASA around what they renamed as Lattice Confinement Fusion. It is because you think this is actual real science or because you did not know anything about it? Just curious.

    https://www1.grc.nasa.gov/space/science/lattice-confinement-fusion/

    Like

    • Smut Clyde

      you have managed to throw mud (for not using the appropriate word) to pretty much each and everyone involved in the field of research

      I disagree. There are lots of people in this field who remain mud-unflung. I’m sure you can think of examples.

      Like

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  13. Smut Clyde

    Actual science, in both the theoretical and practical aspects.

    Like

    • Do you reckon that the premise of lattice confinement fusion is essentially analog to the original concept by Pons and Fleischmann?

      Are you aware that some of the members of the team involved in this research team have been researching LENR since its origin?

      Are you aware that basically the same team of the people involved in the NASA’s Glenn Research Center lattice confinement fusion project got recently published in the international journal of hydrogen energy with a paper that confirms the observation of anomalous heat when hydrogen or deuterium passes through a high purity Pd lattice, and also that when deuterium is used, isolated areas of the Pd used in the experiment show evidence of physical changes and presence of transmutations ?

      If you are not, then please read:

      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0360319920333462

      Like

      • Smut Clyde

        Do you reckon that the premise of lattice confinement fusion is essentially analog to the original concept by Pons and Fleischmann?

        No.

        Like

      • @ Osiander,

        Are you aware that F&P mistook foam for liquid in their 1992 boil-off experiment?

        Are you aware that this error is reported in a peer reviewed paper published in Physics Letters A in 1993?

        If you are not, please, watch very carefully this video:

        and guess what is inside the cells when the blue arrows are on the top of the tubes.

        The excess heat claimed by F&P is just foam and anything else based on it is foam too.

        Like

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  15. “Smut Clyde”, you only answered a part of my question, and ignored the rest because it makes clear that your answer is wrong.

    Like

  16. You are not at all disappointing “Smutty”. You acted exactly as expected.

    For people that insists LENR is fraud, please see the following three documents, from 1989, 2006 and 2020. The only mistake of Pons and Fleischmann was to think they were seeing fusion, and making everyone else look for fusion products. It was never fusion, and for what exactly is there’s a constellation of theories, but denying it is real, is absolutely dishonest.

    Click to access FralickGCresultsofa.pdf

    (NASA’s Fralick in 1989, saw consistently excess heat passing deuterium through Pd, but was looking for neutrons, and threw the baby with the bath water).

    Click to access 2006LiuB-ExessHeat.pdf

    (2006 independent replication of excess heat found by Bin Liu et al with a completely different setup but using the same basic mechanism of extracting Deuterium through a Pd film, measured excess heat with an energy density comparable to nuclear fission)

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0360319920333462

    (Fralick et al again, still at NASA, confirms again the excess heat, in the same kind of Pd-D setup of 1989, but now also realizes the process leads to transmutations, which implies the process is undeniably nuclear).

    Like

    • So it was never fusion, but fission you say? But why are you keeping it secret from Hermes and CleanHME scientists then? Write to them now!

      Like

      • You really are a master of not making the slightest effort to understand or get a full picture of the matter you are wrongly criticizing. Fralick, from NASA, in 1989, trying to assess and reproduce the claims of Pons and Fleischmann, found consistently excess heat in an absolutely dry (that’s for Ascoli) Deuterium permeation through a Pd lattice system. The wrong assumption of the excess heat being originated by fusion led to the wrong expectation of the observation of neutrons. As no neutrons were observed, the report was taken as a failure to reproduce the claims of Pons and Fleischmann. But it was not a failure, as excess heat, significant and undeniable, but also unexpected by any other mechanism, thus labeled “anomalous” was observed.

        In 2006 the claim was reproduced in a different set up by Bin Liu’s team, the basic process the same: flux of gaseous deuterium through a Pd lattice, in this case a thin Pd film instead of a tubing as in Fralick’s 1989 experiment. Liu’s calorimetry was specially sensitive, and he calculates excess heat production with a power density of 100W/cm3, and stated this level of energy density is in the same range than nuclear fission, just as a comparative point, not implying that the process is nuclear fission, just that is of nuclear origin and can’t be explained by any known chemical process.

        Fralick, now in 2020, (and I speculate he probably did this because he is also a member of the same team from NASA’s Glenn Research Center that published the Lattice Confinement Fusion work) repeated the experiments of his 1989 report, and was able to validate again the excess heat production by the flux of Deuterium through the Pd tubing lattice. This time he also repeated the experiment with H and He, and found that H produces a slight excess heat, and none is produced by the pass of He through the lattice. He also did find evidence of nuclear transmutation in the tubing Pd that had been exposed to deuterium, and none in the unexposed parts.

        Now, Both the Hermes and CleanMHE projects researchers know about these results, they are classic LENR results, published under peer review, and with several other independent replications also published under peer review, as anyone that has studied LENR without bias knows, no need to tell anyone involved, is part of the large body of experimental evidence gathered in spite of the naysayers.

        Like

      • Are you sure you are not a former Watchtower proselytizer? You do sound like one.
        So it never was the fusion as the uninformed heathens know it, but a magic LENR thingy one must convert to and devoutly study in order to truly be saved.
        What I notice is that you avoid contacting the “orthodox academia” recipients of all those million-heavy grants to study cold fusion, but keep droning on here. Indeed like the Jehova’s Witness folks, who need to keep the conversation going so one doesn’t shut the door on their faces.
        And you know what, Osiander? I am getting bored, and this is my proverbial door you are preaching at.

        Like

    • @ Osiander,

      the only and big mistake of F&P was to believe that they had obtained anomalous excess heat, a huge amount in their 1992 boil-off experiment. But they only got a huge quantity of foam, that they have considered as full liquid water in their calculation of the heat required to vaporize it. The nuclear reaction of fusion they claimed to have achieved was just an erroneous inference of this one big mistake.

      The same has happened for 30+ years for any other claims inspired by the method of the two CF pioneers. Making any reference to F&P in claiming to have obtained some excess heat of nuclear origin is a guarantee that, metaphorically speaking, it has taken foam for liquid.

      If you are still not aware of this, please watch again the F&P video of the 1992 experiment (1). You probably need to look at it more than a couple dozen times (2).

      (1) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBAIIZU6Oj8
      (2) https://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/thread/2746-fp-s-experiments-discussion/?postID=97015#post97015

      Like

      • Ascoli, did you ever read the references I just posted? Do you realize these experiments are dry? No electrolysis, no water, therefore no foam whatsoever to blame for errors? Please read them, I beg you.

        Like

      • @ Osiander,

        I know that there is a large variety of approaches to F&P dreaming: wet, dry, plasma, and any other state which your fantasy can suggest. These approaches have produced thousands of documents and continue to produce many. It’s impossible to check all of them, or even a small part. The only way to get rid of these fantasies is to check the trustworthiness of the authors, starting from F&P.

        F&P’s paper and video on their 1992 boil-off experiment show that they misinterpreted the most important, famous and celebrated work in their research activity on CF. This is enough to consider them absolutely unreliable. The same goes for any other CF researcher who was aware of those 1992 results and continued to praise the work of F&P, that is actually all the fusionists, including those working at NASA’s Glenn Research Center.

        So, to convince me to waste my time looking at their documents, you should first to prove that F&P didn’t make a blatant error such as mistaking foam for liquid in calculating the energy balance of their 1992 boil-off experiment.

        F&P came first.

        Did you watch the video?

        Like

  17. QED.

    Like

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