Research integrity

Anil Sood and other questionable stars of MD Anderson

The MD Anderson Cancer Center, part of the University of Texas and located in Houston, is a giant hub of huge cancer research money, even for US standards. They also do a lot of science there, which only purpose seems to be publishing in big journals in order to generate even more money. If there is any genuine interest to help cancer patients with actual research: this stands in a stark contrast with MD Anderson’s evident attitude to research reproducibility and data integrity. A number of their star researchers who published in most respectable journals papers, had their data flagged on the whistleblowing platform PubPeer as highly problematic. Yet MD Anderson apparently cannot care less. Their star cancer researcher and businessman Raghu Kalluri was never investigated for many problems in his publications, either in those with or those without his misconduct-tainted Portuguese co-author and ex-MD Anderson employee Sonia Melo. When nobody ever investigates your research practices (e.g., because your research institution is blinded by the investor money you brought in), you will per definition never be found guilty of any misconduct. This is probably exactly why the elite journal Nature recently accepted a new paper from the Kalluri lab (Kamerkar et al 2017), on the same topic of exosomes as cancer biomarkers as his irreproducible earlier masterpiece with Melo (Melo et al, Nature 2015). The new Nature paper even again features the same disgraced co-author, who lost a Nature Genetics paper (Melo et al, 2009) and her EMBO Young Investigator funding due to data manipulation.

There is more evidence for research misconduct at MD Anderson. Its former president Ronald DePinho resigned from his position in March 2017,  in the wake of enormous financial losses of almost half a billion dollar, but unlike his almost 800 colleagues there, he did not lose his job. DePinho’s own PubPeer record of questionable data is very impressive, but not as impressive as his past salary  as president of MD Anderson of $2 Million a year (he now earns “only” $800k).

Bharat Aggarwal left MD Anderson in December 2015 after nine retractions, which certainly restricted his capacity for impactful publishing and funding acquisition in the US, which might have in turn also diminished Aggarwal’s practical use for the Texan elite cancer research center. The pharmacologist retired honourably and kept all his pension and benefits. His PubPeer record can be admired here. Aggarwal’s data manipulations in around 65 papers were originally flagged by pseudonymous Juuichi Jigen, afterwards whole 85 Aggarwal papers were reported (with little consequences) to the US Office of Research Integrity (ORI) by the mitochondria researcher and data integrity detective Paul Brookes, who used to operate a website science-fraud.org, until he was forced to shut down his site after legal attacks. Brookes also flagged the data integrity deficits in papers of others former MD Anderson researchers, namely Dina Chelouche Lev (PubPeer record here) and Ratna Vadlamudi (PubPeer record here). PubPeer also lists numerous concerns for the papers by the MD Anderson leukaemia researchers Michael Andreeff and Marina Konopleva.

A reader of my site forwarded me now a dossier about the works Anil Sood, which I present below. Sood is professor of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine and co-director of Center for RNA Interference and Non-Coding RNAs at MD Anderson, his many grants are listed here. Sood is paid $455k annually by MD Anderson, even slightly more than Kalluri. Unlike Kalluri (PubPeer record here), Sood never had to correct a paper for data integrity problems, despite his impressive list of PubPeer evidence of questionable data. What follows below is an extra. Will MD Anderson care?

Not likely. Their research integrity Ombudsman William Plunkett did not reply to my first email request where I asked if he is interested to see the Sood dossier. My reminder two days later was answered with an auto-reply: “I am out of my office and will reply to your email when I return”. No date was specified: in which year or century Prof Plunkett will be back to deal with my inquiries, I suppose I was expected to wait.

Here is the full file of the Anil Sood dossier. Following is some select evidence, and even more is on PubPeer.


Thaker PH, Yazici S, Nilsson MB, Yokoi K, Tsan RZ, He J, Kim SJ, Fidler IJ, Sood AK. Antivascular therapy for orthotopic human ovarian carcinoma through blockade of the vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptors. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Jul 1;11(13):4923-33.

Slide2
Contrast adjustment reveals straight edges and lack of background, suggestive of  wilful digital image manipulation. Image copyright: AACR, under fair use

Moreno-Smith M, Lee SJ, Lu C, Nagaraja AS, He G, Rupaimoole R, Han HD, Jennings NB, Roh JW, Nishimura M, Kang Y, Allen JK, Armaiz GN, Matsuo K, Shahzad MM, Bottsford-Miller J, Langley RR, Cole SW, Lutgendorf SK, Siddik ZH, Sood AK. Biologic effects of dopamine on tumor vasculature in ovarian carcinoma. Neoplasia. 2013 May;15(5):502-10.

Slide4
Gel bands in red boxes appear duplicated. If true, this would indicate wilful data manipulation. Image copyright: Elsevier, under fair use
Slide5
Same image apparently zoomed in and inappropriately re-used. Image copyright: Elsevier, under fair use

Lu C, Kamat AA, Lin YG, Merritt WM, Landen CN, Kim TJ, Spannuth W, Arumugam T, Han LY, Jennings NB, Logsdon C, Jaffe RB, Coleman RL, Sood AK. Dual targeting of endothelial cells and pericytes in antivascular therapy for ovarian carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jul 15;13(14):4209-17.

Slide6
Yellow framed image obviously re-used between this and another publication in same journal (Lu et al 2008). Image copyright: AACR, under fair use

Thaker PH, Deavers M, Celestino J, Thornton A, Fletcher MS, Landen CN, Kinch MS, Kiener PA, Sood AK. EphA2 expression is associated with aggressive features in ovarian carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 1;10(15):5145-50.

Slide10
Two neighbouring western blot bands look identical. If true, this evidences wilful data manipulation. Image copyright: AACR, under fair use

Pradeep S, Kim SW, Wu SY1, Nishimura M, Chaluvally-Raghavan P, Miyake T, Pecot CV, Kim SJ, Choi HJ, Bischoff FZ, Mayer JA, Huang L, Nick AM, Hall CS, Rodriguez-Aguayo C, Zand B, Dalton HJ, Arumugam T, Lee HJ, Han HD, Cho MS, Rupaimoole R, Mangala LS, Sehgal V, Oh SC, Liu J, Lee JS, Coleman RL, Ram P, Lopez-Berestein G, Fidler IJ, Sood AK13. Hematogenous metastasis of ovarian cancer: rethinking mode of spread. Cancer Cell. 2014 Jul 14;26(1):77-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2014.05.002.

Slide11
Something is not right with this immunofluorescence image. Green signal suddenly gone in the overlay, and the DNA staining (DAPI) seems not to match. Image copyright: Elsevier, under fair use.


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59 comments on “Anil Sood and other questionable stars of MD Anderson

  1. Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Nov;8(11):3584-91.
    Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor-mediated proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by the novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571.
    McGary EC1, Weber K, Mills L, Doucet M, Lewis V, Lev DC, Fidler IJ, Bar-Eli M.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Cancer Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054,USA.

    Figure 2.

    Like

  2. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2092-100. Epub 2004 May 3.
    Exposure of melanoma cells to dacarbazine results in enhanced tumor growth and metastasis in vivo.
    Lev DC1, Onn A, Melinkova VO, Miller C, Stone V, Ruiz M, McGary EC, Ananthaswamy HN, Price JE, Bar-Eli M.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 0173, 7777 Knight Rd, Houston, TX 77054, USA.

    Figure 6.

    Like

    • From: JCO JCO@asco.org
      Date: Mon, Mar 25, 2019 at 8:54 PM
      Subject: RE: Problematic data J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2092-100.
      To: claire Francis claire.francis1492@gmail.com

      Dear Mrs. Francis,

      Thank you for explaining and for the green outlines of the figure panels in Figure 6. We’ll reach out to the authors of this article and perform an erratum.

      Sincerely,

      Aislinn K. Boyter

      Editorial Coordinator

      Publishing

      American Society of Clinical Oncology

      2318 Mill Road, Suite 800

      Alexandria, VA 22314

      571-483-1732

      asco.org • cancer.net • conquercancerfoundation.org • cancerlinq.org

      From: claire Francis claire.francis1492@gmail.com
      Sent: Saturday, March 23, 2019 5:37 AM
      To: JCO JCO@asco.org
      Subject: Re: Problematic data J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2092-100.

      Two images, the ones inside the green rectangles, are the same.

      They are not the next section as the cell nuclei are the same.

      The error needs to be corrected otherwise people will think that sort of thing can happen by chance,

      i.e. please correct the scientific record.

      On Fri, Mar 22, 2019 at 10:13 PM JCO JCO@asco.org wrote:

      Dear Mrs. Francis,

      Thank you for writing to the Editorial Office of Journal of Clinical Oncology. Can you please expound on what you mean by “problematic data”?

      Looking forward to hearing from you.

      Sincerely,

      Aislinn K. Boyter

      Editorial Coordinator

      Publishing

      American Society of Clinical Oncology

      2318 Mill Road, Suite 800

      Alexandria, VA 22314

      571-483-1732

      From: Report Error reporterror@asco.org
      Date: Wed, Apr 10, 2019 at 6:53 PM
      Subject: RE: Problematic data J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2092-100.
      To: claire Francis claire.francis1492@gmail.com

      Dear Ms. Francis,

      We appreciate your interest, but we were unable to confirm with the authors that an error was made since the research was published such a long time ago.

      Please let us know if you have any other questions or concerns.

      Sincerely,

      Amy King

      JCO Editorial Office

      703-797-1900

      Like

      • ———- Forwarded message ———
        From: Report Error reporterror@asco.org
        Date: Thu, Apr 11, 2019 at 4:55 PM
        Subject: RE: Journal Clin Oncol refusing to correct image duplication: Problematic data J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2092-100.
        To: claire Francis claire.francis1492@gmail.com, Report Error reporterror@asco.org, JCO JCO@asco.org, Linda Gough cope_administrator@publicationethics.org

        Dear Ms. Francis,

        Authors must confirm any corrections we make to the journal. In the author’s review of this figure, they acknowledge that it is indeed possible that there may have been an error. However, as the studies presented in this manuscript were conducted more than 17 years ago by multiple investigators, they cannot confirm. Thus, unfortunately we cannot make a change at this time.

        I hope this helps, and please let us know if you have any other questions or concerns.

        Sincerely,

        Amy King

        JCO Editorial Office

        703-797-1900

        From: claire Francis claire.francis1492@gmail.com
        Sent: Thursday, April 11, 2019 1:40 AM
        To: Report Error reporterror@asco.org; JCO JCO@asco.org; Linda Gough cope_administrator@publicationethics.org
        Subject: Journal Clin Oncol refusing to correct image duplication: Problematic data J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2092-100.

        The images are clearly the same. Why do you need to confirm that with the authors? The images are in front of you.

        C

        Like

  3. Mol Cancer Res. 2006 Nov;4(11):803-10. Epub 2006 Oct 31.
    Wild-type p53 inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 promoter activation: implications for soft tissue sarcoma growth and metastasis.
    Liu J1, Zhan M, Hannay JA, Das P, Bolshakov SV, Kotilingam D, Yu D, Lazar AF, Pollock RE, Lev D.
    Author information
    1
    Departments of 1 Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Figure 4.

    Like

  4. 2019 retraction.

    PLoS One. 2010 Apr 16;5(4):e10105. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010105.
    Vimentin is a novel anti-cancer therapeutic target; insights from in vitro and in vivo mice xenograft studies.
    Lahat G1, Zhu QS, Huang KL, Wang S, Bolshakov S, Liu J, Torres K, Langley RR, Lazar AJ, Hung MC, Lev D.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

    2019 retraction notice.
    https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214006

    Following publication of this [1] article, the following concerns were raised:
    Potential overlap in dot plot patterns within regions of the following pairs of figure panels: Fig 2A HT1080 24h/μ1M and SKLMS1 4h/5μM dot plot; Fig 3C VimKD DMSO and Fig 2A STS26T DMSO dot plot; Fig 4C KD+pcDNA DMSO and WFA (1uM/24h) dotplot;
    Duplication of patterns within the background of blots shown in Fig 4A (DMSO lane in both DMSO and Z-VAD blots), Fig 4C (lane 1 of the Vimentin probed blot), lanes 3 and 5 of the Cleaved Casp-3 probed blot);
    Fig 3B Vimentin panel lane 1 (Mock) and 2 (NT siRNA) appear similar to the Actin panel lane 2 (NT siRNA) and 3 (Vim siRNA);
    Fig 5A PLS-1 blot Ubiquitin panel shows similarity between lanes 1 and 2 as well as lanes 4 and 5 (when adjusted for brightness/contrast);
    Fig 5B, there appear to be repeated areas of similarity within Ubiquitin panel lanes 1, 3, 5;
    There are similar staining patterns in the background of select regions of Fig 6D HDMEC RM, WFA (1μM), LEC STS CM, WFA (1μM) and LEC RM, DMSO panels
    Fig 6B HDMEC and LEC dotplots with WFA (μM/24h) treatment appear to contain similar patterns;
    Fig 7A contains vertical discontinuities after lanes 2 and 4 in the GAPDH blot, and after lane 4 in the Vimentin blot; the background in lane 5 of each panel appear discontinuous with the background in lane 4.
    In Fig 7C the background appears different in lanes 1–4 versus lanes 5–8 of the Vim FL/VDP blot, and there appears to be a vertical discontinuity between lanes 4, 5. In lane 1 of the Activated PARP blot in Fig 7C, there are similarities in the background speck patterns on the left side of the lane.
    For concerns regarding flow cytometry data, the authors explain that the data presented in the manuscript are exact replica of the graphs delivered by the institutional core facility. For concerns regarding Western blot panels, the authors note that the background and vertical discontinuities observed could be attributed to a technical artefact. The authors do not agree with the concerns raised and stand by the integrity of their published figures and the validity of the results in the article.

    However, in the absence of the data underlying the published figures and in light of the concerns affecting multiple figures and panels depicting different experiments which cast doubt on the reliability of the key findings presented in this study, the PLOS ONE Editors retract this article.

    GL, AL, and DL did not agree with the retraction. QZ, KH, SW, SB, JL, KT, RL, and MH did not respond.

    Reference
    1.Lahat G, Zhu Q-S, Huang K-L, Wang S, Bolshakov S, Liu J, et al. (2010) Vimentin Is a Novel Anti-Cancer Therapeutic Target; Insights from In Vitro and In Vivo Mice Xenograft Studies. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10105. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010105pmid:20419128

    Like

    • Smut Clyde

      For concerns regarding flow cytometry data, the authors explain that the data presented in the manuscript are exact replica of the graphs delivered by the institutional core facility

      So the authors did not actually perform the FACS experiments, but outsourced them to an uncredited department of the institution, which they now blame for faking the results?

      Like

  5. https://faculty.mdanderson.org/profiles/paul_chiao.html

    J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 29;280(17):16843-50. Epub 2005 Jan 25.
    Function of polo-like kinase 3 in NF-kappaB-mediated proapoptotic response.
    Li Z1, Niu J, Uwagawa T, Peng B, Chiao PJ.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    https://pubpeer.com/publications/A78C9627CC6888F8B07168484B3A61

    Like

    • J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 25;279(26):27549-59. Epub 2004 Apr 21.
      Stabilization of p53 is a novel mechanism for proapoptotic function of NF-kappaB.
      Fujioka S1, Schmidt C, Sclabas GM, Li Z, Pelicano H, Peng B, Yao A, Niu J, Zhang W, Evans DB, Abbruzzese JL, Huang P, Chiao PJ.
      Author information
      1
      Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

      https://pubpeer.com/publications/5E4AF35975B2D2EF07604CFCC4A259

      Like

      • Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Jan;9(1):346-54.
        Function of nuclear factor kappaB in pancreatic cancer metastasis.
        Fujioka S1, Sclabas GM, Schmidt C, Frederick WA, Dong QG, Abbruzzese JL, Evans DB, Baker C, Chiao PJ.
        Author information
        1
        Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

        https://pubpeer.com/publications/140CD4C44A2B271059AA741ACFB86C

        Like

    • Mol Cell. 2003 Nov;12(5):1287-300.
      Mechanisms of proinflammatory cytokine-induced biphasic NF-kappaB activation.
      Schmidt C1, Peng B, Li Z, Sclabas GM, Fujioka S, Niu J, Schmidt-Supprian M, Evans DB, Abbruzzese JL, Chiao PJ.
      Author information
      1
      Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

      https://pubpeer.com/publications/B976A8737FFFF77AE689F918676213

      Like

      • PLoS One. 2014 Jul 16;9(7):e101452. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101452. eCollection 2014.
        Cooperativity of oncogenic K-ras and downregulated p16/INK4A in human pancreatic tumorigenesis.
        Chang Z1, Ju H2, Ling J1, Zhuang Z1, Li Z1, Wang H3, Fleming JB4, Freeman JW5, Yu D1, Huang P6, Chiao PJ1.
        Author information
        1
        Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
        2
        Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America; Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.
        3
        Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
        4
        Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
        5
        The Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.
        6
        Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

        Like

  6. Zebedee

    Br J Cancer. 2005 May 23;92(10):1899-905.
    The Akt inhibitor KP372-1 suppresses Akt activity and cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells.
    Mandal M1, Kim S, Younes MN, Jasser SA, El-Naggar AK, Mills GB, Myers JN.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    https://pubpeer.com/publications/E3B3931AD2953898295911E9B755DB

    Figure 3.

    Figure 6B.

    Like

    • Zebedee

      Cancer Res. 2005 Jul 1;65(13):5696-702.
      The S100A7-c-Jun activation domain binding protein 1 pathway enhances prosurvival pathways in breast cancer.
      http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/13/5696.article-info
      Ethan D. Emberley1,3, Yulian Niu2,3, Linda Curtis2,3, Sandra Troup2,3, Sanat K. Mandal4, Jeffery N. Myers5, Spencer B. Gibson1,3, Leigh C. Murphy1,3, and Peter H. Watson2,3
      Departments of 1Biochemistry and Medical Genetics and 2Pathology, University of Manitoba; 3Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4Basic Medical Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland and College of the North Atlantic, Clarenville Campus, Clarenville, Newfoundland, Canada; and 5Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
      Requests for reprints:
      Peter H. Watson, Department of Pathology, University of Manitoba, D212-770 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 0W3.

      Figures 2A and 6.

      Like

  7. Zebedee

    Oral Oncol. 2006 Apr;42(4):430-9. Epub 2006 Jan 27.
    The Akt inhibitor KP372-1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis and anoikis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
    Mandal M1, Younes M, Swan EA, Jasser SA, Doan D, Yigitbasi O, McMurphey A, Ludwick J, El-Naggar AK, Bucana C, Mills GB, Myers JN.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Unit 441, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030-4009, USA.

    Figure 2A.

    Like

  8. Zebedee

    Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Aug 1;12(15):4755-65.
    Growth-inhibitory effects of human anti-insulin-like growth factor-I receptor antibody (A12) in an orthotopic nude mouse model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
    Wang Z1, Chakravarty G, Kim S, Yazici YD, Younes MN, Jasser SA, Santillan AA, Bucana CD, El-Naggar AK, Myers JN.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, 77030-4009, USA.

    Figure 2A.

    Like

  9. Zebedee

    Oncogene. 2008 Jun 5;27(25):3527-38. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1211015. Epub 2008 Jan 28.
    Reciprocal negative regulation between S100A7/psoriasin and beta-catenin signaling plays an important role in tumor progression of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity.
    Zhou G1, Xie TX, Zhao M, Jasser SA, Younes MN, Sano D, Lin J, Kupferman ME, Santillan AA, Patel V, Gutkind JS, Ei-Naggar AK, Emberley ED, Watson PH, Matsuzawa SI, Reed JC, Myers JN.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030-4009, USA.

    Figure 3e.

    Like

  10. Zebedee

    Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 Apr;4(4):632-40.
    Targeted molecular therapy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with AEE788.
    Kim S1, Schiff BA, Yigitbasi OG, Doan D, Jasser SA, Bekele BN, Mandal M, Myers JN.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 441, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030-4009, USA.

    Figure 4.

    Like

  11. Zebedee

    Cancer Res. 2000 Jan 15;60(2):276-81.
    Heregulin induces expression, DNA binding activity, and transactivating functions of basic leucine zipper activating transcription factor 4.
    Talukder AH1, Vadlamudi R, Mandal M, Kumar R.
    Author information
    1
    The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.

    Illustrated Pubpeer comment has been there for 5 years.
    Does Cancer Research check its Pubpeer “dashboard”?

    See: https://pubpeer.com/publications/03E608793DF2C6F14D577849DE199A

    Figure 2.

    Like

  12. Zebedee

    Many fine institutions offer the study of Ancient Egypt.
    https://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/study/undergraduate/degrees/ba-egyptian-archaeology

    Surely it is not beyond the wit of journals to deal with papers from 2000?

    It has been done before.
    https://retractionwatch.com/2016/09/23/author-asks-to-retract-nearly-20-year-old-paper-over-figure-questions-lack-of-data/

    Like

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