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Janine Erler dossiers which ERC does not want

Janine Erler is a star of Danish cancer research, funded by ERC. Her earlier research led to the discovery of the key role of the enzyme lysyl oxidase in cancer metastasis and brought the scientist and businesswoman very close to curing cancer. Until some sad envious bad-wishers found duplicated gel bands in Erler papers.

Janine Erler is a star of Danish cancer research. She is professor at the University of Copenhagen, group leader at the university’s Biotech Research and Innovation Centre (BRIC) and member at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. Her earlier research led to the discovery of the key role of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) in hypoxia-induced cancer metastasis, postulated during her research stay in Stanford University in USA, in her seminal Nature paper 12 years ago, Erler et al Nature 2006. Next year, the entrepreneur Erler co-founded the company Arresto Biosciences, ready to market an LOX inhibitory antibody simtuzumab. A phase 1 clinical trial began, and in 2010 the business was sold to the pharma giant Gilead for $225mn. The clinical trial on 32 patients completed in 2012, unfortunately Dr Erler and her clinical collaborators were too busy to post any results or publish any papers about the outcomes. It was assumed however that LOX inhibition by simtuzumab “led to reduction in size of several solid tumors”. Even before that phase 1 trial completed, phase 2 on 250 patients with with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma began, and ended in 2015. Yet for some reason, the LOX inhibitor suddenly proved no more effective than a placebo (Benson et al 2017), meaning it had no effect whatsoever. In November 2016, Gilead dropped the product completely. Not the first time when many millions get wasted in clinical research just because something was published in Nature. Never mind the burdens and false hopes given to patients.

In 2008, Erler was group leader at the ICR London (known for highly creative cancer research) and in 2012, she moved her lab to BRIC. In 2016, the European elite funding institution European Research Council (ERC) recognised the potential of Erler’s innovative approach to scientific discoveries and awarded her with €2mn Consolidator grant for 5 years. Without false modesty, Dr Erler is not just a very successful businesswoman and celebrated scientist, but she has also been very close to curing cancer. Until some sad envious bad-wishers found duplicated gel bands in her papers.

Luckily, neither BRIC nor ERC were bothered. When I received two dossiers with evidence of data manipulation, I tried to send them to ERC Standing Committee on Conflict of Interests, Scientific Misconduct and Ethical Issues, but I was made to understand that I am not welcome. Just like the ERC press office, the members of the committee refused to reply to my emails. Incidentally, the head of that Committee and ERC Vice-president is the Danish chemist Klaus Bock, senior executive with Danish beer maker Carlsberg and the Danish National Research Foundation. Which probably means that Denmark’s star scientist Janine Erler not only has friends in high places, but also free beer.

See update below that Stanford University has closed the case in June 2019.

My emails to Bock and his Committee colleagues offering an Erler dossier went unanswered. I did not include ERC president Jean-Pierre Bourguignon because I already figured out he probably doesn’t understand the concept of research integrity, likely due to his background as a CNRS executive.

ERC operates on the principle of absolute research excellence, and apparently the ignoble deed of data manipulation and research misconduct is something an ERC grant recipient cannot engage in, by definition. Thus, if ERC funded scientists are found guilty of research misconduct by their own university, ERC politely pretends it didn’t happen and continues paying out the hefty cash, just like ERC presently keeps doing for the cheater Maria Fousteri. This is also why ERC was the only major funder which continued financing Olivier Voinnet when others deserted him, and this is why ERC kept the grant of zombie scientist Susana Gonzalez suspended for a long time, probably hoping she still might find herself a new lab to fake data in. That grant had to be terminated eventually, just as that of Pontus Boström when he was made to leave academia. Jacob Hanna was even rewarded by a second ERC grant, despite the evidence of data manipulations in his papers which ERC saw as forgivable sins of innocent youth. All these cases are described here.

What ERC funded researchers are apparently expected to do is to publish more papers in Nature or similar, how they do it is their own business. This is why one can scream till blue in the face about the reused and manipulated blots in papers of recently funded ERC grantee Carlos Lopez-Otin: at ERC it will meet on deaf ears. And of course same is true for Erler, as I was made to understand by Bock and his colleagues.

In 2017, Erler educated early career researchers in a Danish science magazine on “How to be a top scientist today”, on her own example.

“While there are no easy fixes, and success can be measured differently by different people, I believe there are some basic principles which will put any young scientist within reach of the ‘top scientist’ accolade. […]

Scientific excellence depends on a high level of energy and dynamism, an insatiable appetite to understand life, and an almost super-human efficiency to juggle everything while maintaining focus. Not to mention, a powerful ability to communicate with your peers and to fight with reviewers. Not for the faint-hearted!”

That text impressed the member of the Nobel Committee for Physics Mats Larsson so much that he even said about Erler:

“One can say that her description forms a baseline for winning a Nobel Prize.

Earlier this year 2018, Erler’s ex-husband Rune Linding, also professor at University of Copenhagen, approached Retraction Watch with a dossier from the HEADT Centre (by Humboldt University Berlin and Elsevier) which analysed the Erler et al Nature 2006 paper and strengthened suspicions of data manipulation. The dossier was originally commissioned by Humboldt researcher Edda Klipp. A former colleague of Erler’s shared another dossier with me (Dossier 2), which I publish here and discuss below.

The first dossier I received though (Dossier 1 can be found here) was sent to me by yet another reader of my site. It also contains collected PubPeer evidence for other papers on LOX in tumorigenesis, from Erler’s and other labs. One can see that already as PhD student in Manchester Erler had a peculiar disregard for proper gel loading controls. Her paper Erler et al, Mol Cell Biol 2004 hides from the reader the fact that despite the intended appearance, the samples were not run on the same gel. It is not a trivial or minor issue: a professor in Vienna, Richard Morrigl, recently had to learn the rules of good scientific practice with western blots.

If the loading controls don’t match (with splicing indicated by arrows), the entire figure becomes rather useless.

The Dossier 2 focusses on Erler’s decisive paper which made her career as elite scientist and biotech entrepreneur: Erler et al Nature 2006.

In the final version of that Nature 2006 paper, Erler postulated an effect of LOX on the activity of another enzyme, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is required for cancer cells to become mobile and to metastasise. Where LOX protein is downregulated, FAK phosphorylation disappears and the FAK enzyme becomes inactive, which provides an elegant mechanism on how a LOX inhibitor could potentially prevent cancer metastases and save millions of lives. Those Erler results are supported by convincing laboratory data, demonstrated in the Figure 4. Or so one thinks. Here is the evidence already available on PubPeer and presented in the first dossier.

From HEADT analysis commissioned by Linding: “Visual inspection of Fig 4c supports the conclusion that parts of that panel have been duplicated. Similarities are indicated in the addendum. Software supported analysis (ORI/Forensic Gradient Map and Forensically Beta Clone detection tool) support that finding”

Why did the authors of the Erler et al Nature 2006 saw the need to duplicate gel bands? Wasn’t the data solid, reproducible and supported, as stated in the paper, by all the controls and parallel experiments (“data not shown”) as well as “consistent with previous reports”? Not necessarily. As the 2nd dossier indicates, some recovered FAK western blots from August 2004 show no signal whatsoever, even when the analysis was repeated. The gels were completely empty. Yet according to same dossier, when Erler gave a lecture in Oxford one year later, in August 2005, the convincing results were already available, the gel existed almost in the same form as it later appeared in Nature. Almost, but not quite. That gel namely started growing additional lanes, prompted by reviewer criticisms. Back when the paper was submitted, the Figure 4 used to be Figure 5, but it did not yet contain any FAK data. The submitted manuscript was criticised by peer reviewers for lacking a mechanistic explanation, and this is how FAK regulation by LOX came to happen.

rebuttal 1
September 2005

In September 2005, Erler sent her first rebuttal letter to peer reviewers at Nature, an excerpt of which is shown in the figure. The reviewers were now presented with some freshly generated data, namely the regulation of FAK activity by LOX. Yet they remained unconvinced that the changes in FAK activity were really due a specific effect from LOX on extracellular matrix. This is why when Erler resubmitted the manuscript again, the reviewers saw exactly same gel grow 3 additional lanes, which proved a role for the extracellular protein beta-1-integrin in the LOX-FAK interaction. Western blots normally do not grow extra lanes. The picture of the 3 new lanes was simply stuck onto the old one.

rebuttal 2
January 2006

Note that the experiment was not repeated, with additional samples, as would have been appropriate. The 3 lanes were ran on a separate gel months later, and simply digitally spliced onto others, made to look as one continuous gel. Consider also: the 3 new lanes showing the absent phospho-FAK signal were physically separate from the gel where the other results and, most importantly, the positive controls were. That being the most elite scientific journal in the world, the Nature reviewers did not mind such LOX, pardon, lax attitude to controls, reproducibility and image integrity. They did have other minor issues though before the paper was accepted.

rebuttal 3
February 2006

The reviewers still were not sure if LOX is really the key regulator of FAK and metastasis, as proposed by Erler. They pointed out some recent publication on the role of hydrogen peroxide which is produced during hypoxia. No problem, Erler’s gel grew another lane featuring a peroxide experiment with Catalase to satisfy the reviewers. So now there were two new gels, both showing no phospho-FAK signal, spliced onto the old gel where the positive control for phospho-FAK signal was present. How did the reviewers know those two gels were ever probed with a working phospho-FAK antibody (remember Erler’s empty gels from 2004)? They trusted her, and so must the scientific community reading Nature, who were led to believe the new Figure 5 shows one continuous gel. It is however anything but.

This is what Figure 4 really consists of, when one accesses the original figure and pulls apart the separate puzzle bits of gel pictures:

fig 4 decomposed

Nothing matches anything. The total FAK and phospho-FAK bands come from all over the place, but no two pieces look like they ever were on the same gel. The positive controls for phospho-FAK came from a different gel as everything else. And the rebuttal data of FAK proves as phoney. The phospho-FAK band for last Catalase experiment is just the extension from the previous rebuttal, before the relevant paper was even mentioned and the experiment was requested of Erler. Also the main data points, siRNA for LOX and resupplied +LOX can’t be trusted to have come from correct experiments. But that’s not all. There are also as we know band duplications. Even more than the professional HEADT analysts found.

fig 4 decomposed rot

The same band of total FAK appeared initially twice: as +LOX and as catalase. But now we see its real origin: it used to be the first hypoxia-free control band, rotated.

And in case you were still hoping that at least some of the bands might have been showing the phospho-FAK antibody signal from that LOX experiment: not likely. These scans of old western blots provide evidence:

fig 4 old westerns

The microbiologist Elisabeth Bik is also an image integrity expert and has a unique talent for detecting duplicated image fragments. Her work was decisive in uncovering a fraud case at a pharma giant Pfizer, which featured on my site. Bik now analysed the Figure 4c and those old gel images from 2004, and this is what she found:

Above: Gel from 2004, below: Fig 4C. Colour boxes show unexpected similarities.

The “phospho-FAK” bands attributed to the two control samples and to the two shRNA samples as well as the “+LOX” existed already in 2004 and were originally labelled as something completely different. It is not clear what exactly (something about some VHL mutants Y98N), but it is rather sure that those 2004 experiments, attributed to Erler, had nothing to do with FAK. It even seems that one fat “+LOX” phospho-FAK band from the Nature paper used to be two adjacent bands in that old 2004 gel.

The former lab colleague sums up in the Dossier 2:

“Primary data do exist (contrary to Stanford Investigation)
Main finding of FAK figure (P-FAK band for +LOX) is fabricated:
Taken from experiment irrelevant to FAK or LOX (VHL mutants Y98N)
Bands used for control and +LOX experiment from the same lane (physical impossible given the claim is different conditions). Experiment performed ~1 year before request for it by the external reviewers
Other bands clearly duplicates (see attached movie). No change in bands moving from siRNA to shRNA (compare 1st revision w. 2nd). Primary data for other figures also seems available from the “Erler Disk”
Primary data most likely also at Stanford (or deleted by someone?)

There are more band duplications in this paper, assembled in the Dossier 1.

This is the Nature-quality preclinical research upon which the pharma giant Gilead invested hundreds of millions dollars, and for which cancer patients were recruited to pointless clinical trials and given false hope. All that might have been already prevented had the reviewers asked Erler et al to run all experimental samples and their controls on one single gel, as proper scientists do.

In 2015, when the clinical trial proved that LOX inhibition had no more than a placebo effect on patients, Erler published another paper in Nature: Cox et al 2015. Now LOX grew itself a new role in cancer: Erler’s lab in Copenhagen postulated LOX activity causes bone metastasis, via a novel signalling pathway. The failed inhibitor simtuzumab was given a new life, to work in yet another novel pathway and cure cancer. ERC immediately grabbed the opportunity to advance groundbreaking research in Europe and gave Erler €2mn. Because as Erler already proved to Gilead and anyone else who bothered to watch, a preclinical paper in Nature is gospel and a recipe for a clinical success. Not.

That Cox et al 2015 paper was quickly refuted by other researchers, and it also contains some data irregularities. Again, the loading controls don’t match.

From Dossier 1 and PubPeer.

The whole point of loading controls is that they should be probed on exactly the same gel as the other data points. How else can we know that one sample really contained more LOX than the other, if we can not verify if equal amounts of total protein were loaded in each? Because the journal asks authors to upload original data, we see that the original gels don’t match each other: LOX and beta-actin signals stem from physically different gels. Everyone at Nature knew it, but didn’t mind once again. Erler’s story was so nice, you see. Countless cancer patient lives were about to be saved by creative figure assembly.

Lesser lab scientist part I 001

Erler is a star researcher at BRIC, and the institute’s director Kristian Helin has some of his own papers listed on PubPeer, which also contain duplicated gel bands. This might explain why University of Copenhagen and BRIC are so tolerant towards Erler’s gel band troubles. The institutions are however much less tolerant of those who make troubles for Erler. In fact, accidents happen. Things get damaged.

Linding’s BRIC lab, which complained in 2017 to the university about Erler’s research grant management practices, experienced shortly after something truly bizarre from their academic employer. Not a severed horse head in bed, something more original. As a Danish newspaper reported:

“For their experiments, the research group used live cancer cell lines. These cells are meant to be stored frozen at minus 80 degrees, and which therefore requires liquid nitrogen to be supplied on a weekly basis.

But during the course of the conflict-ridden process an administrator at the University cancelled the refuelling. This meant that the temperature rose, and all the cells died, therefore the research group notified the University of vandalism which had their research material destroyed. […]

This was preceded by a controversy about several million Kroner.

The research team received 20 million Kroner grant for cancer research from the State Innovation Fund. The money was obtained when the group was affiliated with the University of Copenhagen Biotech Research & Innovation Center (BRIC).

The connection to the BRIC ran over a fixed period of two years, and since the funding was due to expire in 2017 the team managed to make a deal with Denmark’s Natural History Museum, so the research team was instead able to complete research on the museum’s premises.

But when the agreement was sealed, it appeared that the research team did not have nearly as much money at his disposal as the group had been promised.”

It was the same grant Erler was part of. The issue is now with the Danish courts. But the cell lines are gone forever and can’t be reimbursed. The University of Copehagen’s message is clear.

Update: I now received another dossier by Biovoxxel about Erler et al Nature 2006. It analyses further band duplications .

Update 24.08.2018. I finally managed to get a reply from ERC! Their Press Advisor replied to me today:

“Thank you for your email. The ERC treats seriously any allegations of scientific misconduct and has procedures in place to deal with such cases.”

It is not much, but hopefully a start.

Update 25.09.2019

There is a detailed account of the destruction of research material, published by Nancy Gogh on 30 05.2019 on Medium. I was also privy to an email from Kathy McClelland, Research Compliance Director at Stanford University, addressed to Erler’s ex-husband Linding, who apparently shared with Stanford a hard drive with the original data. The email was send on 30.06.2019:

“At this point, the University has once again concluded that it will close the matter, due to the facts that:

–       The article was published 13 years ago;

–       The original data are unavailable;

–       The information provided by you was not accessible, and of uncertain provenance;

–       The data retention period and the applicable statute of limitations for research misconduct matters have expired; and

–       The major findings of the paper have been replicated and validated multiple times in the literature.

Under the circumstances here, the University has determined that there are no further actions that would be appropriate or required for it to take, and is therefore closing the matter. “

Erler’s mentor and last author on that 2006 Nature paper, Amato Giaccia, has since left Stanford for UK, to become director of new radiology institute in Oxford. Stanford now makes their biomedical PhD students swear pledge not to fake data, probably as a pre-emptive scapegoating programme.

Update 19.03.2020

The paper Erler et al Nature 2006 has been retracted on 18 March 2020:

“We, the authors, are retracting this Article owing to issues that have come to our attention regarding figure assembly and data availability. Image analysis of the data has showed several image anomalies in Fig. 4c, Supplementary Figs. 1a, e and 4a. Nature has informed us that the quality and integrity of these images are not in line with journal policies. In particular, the panels affected include Supplementary Fig. 4a, which demonstrates that the shRNA construct used in the manuscript induces a reduction of LOX protein. No original data are available for the affected panels or other data included in the manuscript. We believe that the key findings of the paper are still valid as replicated by others. However, given the issues described above and the absence of original data, we have concluded that the most appropriate course of action is to retract the Article. All authors agree with the Retraction.”


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73 comments on “Janine Erler dossiers which ERC does not want

  1. Science Crusader

    This meeting were contacted as it features the first author as speaker:

    They rejected the information as ‘anonymously’ which is odd given the many people and organisations involved in the case already, mentioned above.

    It is also an odd reaction; why would you have a person conducting scientific misconduct being portrayed as a rolemodel for students/postdocs at your conference ? Perhaps the organizers can answer to that.


  2. Nix Recto

    The 1st author has received 3.5 MDKK for her new company LOXIPHARM.

    Citing retraction watch: “Nathan said that he wasn’t surprised to see simtuzumab didn’t help with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, even though the LOX pathway is known to be important in the disease”

    1/3 of the LOXIPHARM company is dedicated to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. So the 1st author applied and won money from the Novo Nordisk Foundation well knowing that this was already a dead end or bogus.

    That must be considered an attempt to defraud the foundation for money which is gross misconduct/potentially a crime under the law.

    The Novo Foundation is a public foundation that must operate according to strict public principles and for common good. [now defaced]


  3.         [this comment arrived with a Greek email address, but from an IP address registered to Copenhagen University (2nd Level Domain: Just as this morning I received a statement from the Dean, which I asked to clarify. Interesting. - LS]

    I would like to chime in very briefly. Some of the data are problematic and they indeed indicate intent which is inexcusable. That’s especially true for the 2006 paper; the 2015 paper that has been “refuted” by other researchers displays different results arising from different systems, as the other authors and the accompanying editorials indicate. At any case, there were and there will be independent investigations that will ascertain whether she (intentionally) faked the data.
    Having said that, a lot of what’s in here is hearsay and guilty by association accusations. Dr. Erler and Dr. Linding are embroiled in a scathing custody fight, with Dr. Linding getting the short end and therefore having a vested interest in tarnishing Dr. Erler. The last paragraph about BRIC punishing Dr. Linding on behalf of Dr. Erler is flatout unfounded and it is rather disappointing that such a -literally- criminal act is even implied, resembling tabloid journalism. Unless of course Dr. Schneider can provide evidence of intent or even knowledge of this event. Along the same lines, what does Dr. Helin, who is not being demoted but is leaving for Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, have to do with any of this? This isn’t the bloody Mafia, unless again Dr. Schneider has some evidence on that.


    • Proper Science

      Did Linding time-travel back to 2006 and faked the data for Erler? Did he do the same for all the other publications on Erler on PubPeer.

      Excusing scientific fraud is as bad as conducting it.

      Precisely what is “hearsay” and “guilt by association”…..perhaps your own relationship with Erler.

      The last paragraph has been sourced from a prominent DK news paper which have reported on the police report of the matter, thus please explain how you consider this unfounded; given its reported as a crime and according to the news article under investigation.

      Please explain how bands rotate and copy themselves into the Figure 4 of the Nature 2006 paper.

      That Helin was walked out of KU that is well-known at the university.


      • Proper Science

        PS: Reg. 2015 paper How the can this be call “refuted”, improper loading controls is flat-out scientific error.


      • Thanks for your response. Scientific fraud is inexcusable, we are on the same page on that. And the 2006 paper is problematic with data that look deliberately manipulated. However, it is not yours or my job to prove it, that’s why there are independent scientific committees that appraise these events. With respect to the last paragraph and BRIC sabotaging Dr. Linding’s cell-lines, if you are right then the police report will show that. The fact that there is an ongoing investigation means just that. That they are investigating. If you are scientist, you should understand that. I can claim that X stole my wallet, then they will investigate. That does not mean it’s true. It would also give pause if I am the ex husband of X and with whom I am having a protracted and scathing conflict. When the results of the investigation are out, by all means if you are right, I will apologise. In the meantime, in my opinion of course, it’s hearsay and nomore than that.
        I have no relationship with either Dr. Erler or Dr.Linding, I have no skin in this game, so I would apreciate it if you don’t waive fingers. I think that we are trying to have a civilised conversation and figure out how fraud should be prevented/punished and reputations should not be tarnished without due process and actual proof. Thanks again.


    • [this comment arrived with a Greek email address, but from an IP address registered to Copenhagen University (2nd Level Domain: Just as this morning I received a statement from the Dean, which I asked to clarify. Interesting. – LS]
      Not everything is a conspiracy or interesting, as in the stated comment above. I am Greek, I am a PostDoc in KU, my name is Dimitris Typas, I registered with my greek email address (, which is a secondary address for mostly social media, because I didn’t think that I would get caught up in this. I was wrong. I thought I would state my opiniong and slightly contribute to the discussion. I think that the investigative journalism in science fraudulence that Dr. Schneider does is important, that’s why I have been following him and I will continue to follow his posts. It is also the reason why I am disappointed that we are not waiting for due process and, in my opinion, the article contains hearsay and unfounded claims.
      I hope this clarifies things


      • Dear Dimitris

        Kudos for standing forward. Just a few fact checks from a colleague who is not as brave as you.

        My understanding from living here all my life is:

        DK police does nothing and reject investigations unless presented with clear evidence.
        The woman always win custody in DK.
        I read there is also economic fraud and a major case presented to court. That must be evidence based.

        Perhaps fraud was also conducted in the custody case…


    • The tabloid comparison was uncalled for, I missed the link to the original article, my apologies for that. That’s not to say that the original article is true, I am sorry I missed the reference.


  4. Ursula Jansen

    @Dimitris I assume you have reported at least the cph-uni papers from the 1st author which are now on pubpeer to the cps university board investigating scientific misconduct, that is usually a duty of colleagues. This can then initiate the ‘due process’ you request.


  5. Did anybody report this officially ?

    Rector Henrik C. Wegener

    Otherwise nobody will look into the case.


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  8. Rix Rictor

    Wow you can now go and learn first hand about this art form


  9. Rix Rictor

    Citing from:

    “In comparison, the use of LOX-specific monoclonal antibody M64 targeting a peptide sequence previously identified as generating an inhibitory polyclonal antisera26 provided little therapeutic benefit in models of oncology and fibrosis in our hands.”
    “Tumor-associated secreted and extracellular LOX may be more rapidly turned-over in vivo, rendering it a less amenable antibody therapeutic target, and LOX may have important intracellular functions that would not be addressed by an antibody therapeutic62,63. In addition, LOX research presents a mixed picture with respect to oncology, with some studies ascribing tumor-suppressor roles to the protein”

    This study more or less blasts LOXs claim to fame……”in their hands”….obviously not in other “hands”.


  10. Rix Rictor

    Last author moves from Stanford to BREXIT land:

    “The Cancer Research UK Oxford Centre is delighted to welcome Professor Amato J Giaccia (recently appointed as the new director of the MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology) to the Oxford cancer research community.”


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  16. 2019 Editor’s Note for
    Cancer Res. 2013 Mar 15;73(6):1721-32. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-2233. Epub 2013 Jan 23.
    LOX-mediated collagen crosslinking is responsible for fibrosis-enhanced metastasis.
    Cox TR1, Bird D, Baker AM, Barker HE, Ho MW, Lang G, Erler JT.
    Author information
    Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    2019 Editor’s Note.

    The editors were made aware of concerns regarding this article (1). An internal review by the editors determined that lanes 2–4 of the pSMAD2 Western blot image in Supplementary Fig. S3C are identical to the LOX Western blot image in Supplementary Fig. S3D.


  17. 2019 Mol Cancer Res correction for Janine Erler.

    In the original version of this article (1), the t = 0 negative control images CM+c (Fig. 2D) and CM (Fig. 3B) display a duplicated image of the same well. This duplication was inadvertent and does not affect the conclusions for either figure. The image for Fig. 3B has been replaced with the correct well in the latest online HTML and PDF versions of the article. The authors regret this error.  

    1.↵Barker HE, Bird D, Lang G, Erler JT. Tumor-secreted LOXL2 activates fibroblasts through FAK signaling. Mol Cancer Res 2013;11:1425–36.  

    Liked by 1 person

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