Smut Clyde

Chen bacon sausage and Chen; Chen egg Chen Chen bacon and Chen…

Smut Clyde chases the ubiquitous multifaced Chen twins.

Smut Clyde found the dead horse of the fraudulent Chen twins and decided to flog both of them. But then it turned out that the Chens have been cloning themselves and whenever some journal whacks out one set, they keep coming back, again and again, but under slightly different names! Suspense and horror in three acts.

Strictly speaking, Shadwell didn’t run the Witchfinder Army either

By Smut Clyde

According to Shadwell’s pay ledgers it was run by Witchfinder General Smith. Under him were Witchfinder Colonels Green and Jones, and Witchfinder Majors Jackson, Robinson, and Smith (no relation). Then there were Witchfinder Majors Saucepan, Tin, Milk, and Cupboard, because Shadwell’s limited imagination had been beginning to struggle at this point. And Witchfinder Captains Smith, Smith, Smith, and Smythe and Ditto.”

WS Shadwell‘s limited imagination might also be the source of T. Gong-Yo and M. Huiwi. They seem to be imperfect clones of Gong-You Tang and Hui Ma, or their counterparts from an alternative parallel time-line, with names that are not quite identical.

Let me explain. Gong-You Tang and Hui Ma coauthored a 2019 paper on stabilizing off-shore drilling rigs. Then the same equations, illustrations and tables of results found their way into “Evolved predictive vibration control for offshore platforms based on the Lyapunov stability criterion” (2020) [26], where authors T. Gong-Yo and M. Huiwi were book-ended by Tim Chen and J. C.-Y. Chen. Tang and Ma (2019) are affiliated to “College of Information Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao”, which somehow became the academic home of J. C.-Y. Chen (2020). In contrast, Gong-Yo and Huiwi (2020) share affiliations to Computer Robotics Control, RMIT University, Melbourne; and AI Center, University of Maryland, College Park… where the former is a course, not a faculty, while the latter doesn’t exist.

Of course this could be explained by classic plagiarism, enhanced by fictional name-faked coauthors with the idea that anyone who had read the 2019 version would be fooled by the nominative proximity and would blame the original authors for rehashing their own work. But admit it, my alternative-timeline theory also has its charms.

The second example of a copy-paste began when Bassam M. Ayoub wrote “Development and validation of simple spectrophotometric and chemometric methods for simultaneous determination of empagliflozin and metformin” (2016). Then ‘Bassamm Ayoub’ became second author (out of four) of “First order derivative spectrophotometric technique and coefficients validation for contemporaneous determination of oral diabetes medicines” (Chen, Ayoub, Mohamady & Chen, 2018) [11], which contained the same material… before it was withdrawn from Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. while still “in press”. The two Ayoubs both work in Cairo, but at Faculty of Pharmacy, British University in Egypt (BUE), and at College of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, respectively.

Diana Audi and Rim Gouia – authors of “New Math Teaching Methodologies for ELL Students” (2016) – acquired extra vowels to become Diana Auidi and Rim Gouioa, two of the authors of “New Math Teaching Methodologies for English Language E-Learners Students” (Chen, Auidi, Gouioa, Chapron, Chen & Wee 2019) [14].

Going back to the first example (Gong-Yo and Huiwi), there was this perplexing aspect: The original manuscript had not reached print at the time of the duplicate version’s submission for publication; it was stalled in Peer-Review Purgatory. Readers can speculate about the exact chain of events, but if I were an Editor of Journal of Sound & Vibration, I would be casting a cold eye over the list of people who had accessed the manuscript as reviewers.

Similar events allowed Chen and Chen (2020), in “A New Viewpoint on Control Algorithms for Anthropomorphic Robotic Arms” [21], to address the complexities of maneuvering robotic arms in a way that makes the most of the available degrees of freedom, without creating singularities. Singularities are never good. The illustrations for their paper were also a part of “A singularity handling algorithm based on operational space control for six-degree-of-freedom anthropomorphic manipulators” (Kang, Cheng & Huang 2019). But Kang’s paper was still undergoing peer review when Chen & Chen’s paper was accepted… how did this happen?! We apologise for the lack of evocatively-named imaginary-friend co-authors.

Peer-review shenanigans? Fictive identities? Authors Chen and Chen? This is beginning to sound familiar.

There is a lot more packed into the story, including familiar themes like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, tortured phrases, metaheuristics, pseudepigraphy and Reference sections that are bursting at the seams as if the authors had used them as back-up copies of CVs. But we have to start somewhere.

A 2014-2016 series of posts at Retraction Watch followed the drama and disgrace of Cheng-Wu and Chen-Yuan (Peter) Chen, twin brothers and high-fliers of Taiwanese academia. They published in predatory pay-to-print outlets like Scientific Review from Academic Research Publishing Group, and in industry newsletters and low-profile scholarly-society journals, and in borderline-flaky publishers that escape the hateful sobriquet of “predatory’ only by charging readers as a subscription for access as well as extracting a publication fee from authors. But also with better-known publishers like Elsevier, Wiley, SAGE, Springer. Extrapolating from their self-citation lists, I’d put their total output in 2005-2014 as somewhere upward of 200 papers. Yes, there is a spreadsheet, though it’s a work in progress. I am grateful to Marianne Alunno-Bruscia for her collaboration in this post. I have also drawn upon Alexander Magazinov‘s and Guillaume Cabanac‘s comments in PubPeer threads.

It is hard to pin the Chen-&-Chen oeuvre down to a single subject, for they are polymathic Renaissance men, like Leonardo and Michelangelo (and the Borgia popes). Their names appear on market research papers and tourism surveys and architectural fantasias and applications in earthquake-proofing buildings and wave-proofing deep-sea drilling rigs… but there is a vague preference for the applied mathematics field of fuzzy logic algorithms for dampening vibrations in non-linear situations, and seeking rigorous proof that these can guarantee stability. Don’t worry, this will not be in the final exam.

A 2014 tranche of retractions unpublished 60 papers from the Journal of Vibration & Control. This included a number of papers that aren’t available for post-mortems because SAGE simply wished them out of the ‘Early View / Accepted’ section of the journal website and into the cornfield, leaving no vestigial trace. The kind of damnatio memoriae that Elsevier and Frontiers prefer to call ‘withdrawals’ rather than ‘Retractions’.

For the Chens had usurped the journal’s gatekeeper role, populating its peer-reviewer panel with bogus personae — sometimes stealing the identities of non-fictional experts in other fields. They used these sock-puppets to rubberstamp their own manuscripts, even when these were little more than self-plagiarised compendia of self-citations. The SAGE investigators were unable to make allowances for work from students or colleagues, i.e. papers that the Chens had merely adorned with their signatures. The Retraction Watch authors wrote in Nature in 2014:

“The collateral damage did not stop there. A couple of authors have asked SAGE to reconsider and reinstate their papers, [SAGE spokesperson Camille] Gamboa says, but the publisher’s decision is final — even if the authors in question knew nothing of Chen or the peer-review ring.”

They also controlled the acceptance or rejection of work submitted by other authors. The scheme only came to light because one of these other authors contacted the Editor after hearing from ‘reviewers’ by direct email, rather than through the journal. Generalising from similar shenanigans elsewhere, it is not a great stretch to speculate that Chen and Chen used their gatekeeping power to offer acceptance of other manuscripts in exchange for spurious citations of their own piffle… perhaps even for coerced co-authorships. This would help explain the variety and profligacy of their publications.

I promised some Citation Plantations, so here are the References from “How to manipulate interactive E-book on learning natural catastrophe—An example of structural mechanics using power machine” (Shih et al 2013) [6]. The title is a misnomer, in that every word in it is a lie apart from “to”, “on” and “of”. Anyone craving more should see “Storm surge prediction with management information systems: A case study of estimating value and observations system” (Chen et al 2013) [7].

A second tranche in 2016 featured 11 papers in Human Factors & Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, a Wiley journal. Citation-stacking and manipulation of peer review were again the reasons for retraction. All this was only a fraction of their output, but it was enough push the twins into the coveted empyrean of the Retraction Watch leaderboard.

It is not plausible that these were the only journals suffering from corrupted peer-review. Nonlinear Dynamics was another Chen-friendly output, with three Chen products flagged at PubPeer so far. Natural Hazards has seven products flagged… all exercises in market research and CFA statistics with no link to hazards, but glossed with disaster-themed lipstick in the Titles and Abstracts.

So there was plenty of disgrace to go round, and the repercussions rippled all the way up to Taiwan’s government. The Education Minister Chiang Wei-ling had earlier supervised C.-W. Chen’s dissertation, and his name had been appended as coauthor on some of the papers, so honour obliged him to resign. Other career casualties included the J. Vib. Control Editor-in-Chief (Ali Nayfeh) who had somehow overlooked the level of repetition in those 60 papers, their implausible topics, the insubstantial contents and the flagrant citation stacking; in their Acknowledgement declarations, the Chens regularly thanked Nahfeh for his assistance. So Nayfeh resigned “shortly after he had uncovered a fraudulent peer-review ring”, in the words of his hagiographic W*k*pedia entry (it is odd to see someone who facilitated fraudsters for years being lauded for exposing them, but that’s W*k*pedia). Then Waldemar Karwowski ended his tenure as Editor-in-Chief of Human Factors in early 2016, with a replacement taking over to announce the 11 retractions.

But Nayfeh continued to helm Nonlinear Dynamics and saw no need for investigation there. Prof. Tad Murty, E-in-C of Natural Hazards, another recipient of the twin’s gratitude for his assistance (and prominent climate-change denialist) was equally unscathed. Journals and editors generally turned the page and were all “mistakes were made, the situation has been rectified so further inquiry would be fruitless, be about your business.”

After this level of drama and negative publicity, most scientists would “burn the implements of their craft, and began life anew as trainers of performing elephants” (Bramah 1922). But this was only Act I!

* * * * * * * * * *

In Act II, the curtain rose on Tim Chen and John C.Y. Chen or J. C.-Y. or J. Cy Chen, or even John Chency. The former held a position and an email account in the Faculty of Information Technology of Ton Duc Thang University, in Ho Chi Minh City. The latter boasted of a mind-gasting, flabberboggling parade of affiliations at academic institutions from every continent except perhaps Antarctica, though none of them have ever heard of him. We could label them as Chena* and Chenb* to distinguish them from Chena and Chenb of Act I, but the truth is that these are the same people. In March 2022, Retraction Watch wrote:

“The author C.Y.J. Chen exhibited 29 different academic affiliations in different institutes and/or universities in 15 different countries (i.e. Bangladesh, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, United States, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, Brasilia, Australia, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Vietnam, Spain, Egypt) for the 66 articles (at least) published between 2018 and 2021 in which he is a co-author with Tim Chen.”

The continuity of illustration recycling (and text, and interminable citation lists) is just one reason to conflate Chena* with Chena, and Chenb* with Chenb.

Fig 7a,b from Tsai et al (2016) [10]; Fig 3 from Chen, Khurram & Cheng (2019) [18]; Figs 3,4 from Tsai & Chen (2014) [8]; Fig 1 from Chen & Chen (2021) [22]; Fig 1 from Chen et al (2019) [16]

The Chens shared the authorship of their 2016-2021 output with an ever-changing cast-list of cosmopolitan diversity, with coauthors being acquired by a combination of creativity and identity theft. Inquiring minds are wondering whether Charles Melvilled (at NUST in Islamabad) is any relation to Charles Melville (at University of Bath). Neither of them let their nonexistence stand in the way of writing papers. This increased dependence in Act II on imaginary coauthors with uninspired names goes hand-in-hand with the plagiarism that we saw at the beginning. Perhaps the brothers had less access to material from students and colleagues. Is it time for more examples? It is always time!

“A New Tool Preliminary Assessment on Temporal-Comorbidity Adjusted Risk of Emergency Readmission (T-CARER)” (Chen et al 2018) [13] was a collaboration between the brothers and Asim Muhammad, Bertrand Chapron and Alexander Babanin. It is deeply indebted to “Temporal Comorbidity-Adjusted Risk of Emergency Readmission (T-CARER): A tool for comorbidity risk assessment” (Mesgarpour, Chaussalet & Chahed, 2019). The latter was the later of these two unexpectedly-similar papers to reach publication, although it had been submitted to a journal earlier.

Within this eclectic dramatis personae, Chen and Chen were especially fond of three characters. 

  • Muhammad Asim“, sometimes Assim Muhammad or Asim Muḥammad, or even “Muḥammad Al-Qāsim“.
  • Alexander Babanin“, also Alex. Identity stolen from a professor of the same name, in Ocean Engineering, at Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Melbourne University.
  • Bertrand Chapron“, also Bertraind [29] or Bert. Identity stolen from a researcher of the same name at a French oceanographic institute IFREMER.

They have already been mentioned as coauthors of that plagiarised T-CARER validation paper — never mind their oceanographic expertise. The spreadsheet also features the names of Tasawar Hayat and Ahmed Alsaedi. These two names do not bode well for anyone who hoped for scholarly rectitude and probity, though to be fair, their use does not guarantee that their owners were consulted.


Anyway, the real Bertrand Chapron was surprised to learn of his Chen-related collaborations when they came to his attention (his own research lies in other areas). The journal editors did not respond constructively to complaints about usurpation of identity. J. C.-Y. Chen responded even less helpfully and things escalated quickly, as Retraction Watch quoted him:

“I realize your papers are also full of misconduct [full of plagiarized text]. … If you keep attacking our research team, we will also be forced to start to tell all the truths to any of your colleagues, managers, journals and the reporters … Finally, your name is nothing for me and I have no interest to put your name in my paper.”

… especially when the IFREMER Research Integrity Officer (Marianne Alunno-Bruscia) became involved, again here is Chen quoted by Retraction Watch:

…paparazzi and reporters who crackdown on counterfeit papers worldwide are interested in your hundred manipulation papers instead of my eight undoubtedly original papers. .. Let’s see who bigshot will be damaged on the retraction watch website and banned from publishing on various journals in the future in case of serious ethical misbehaviors from the online database

I am indebted once again to the coverage at Retraction Watch. But not everyone shares my approval of Thomas Mann’s dictum “that only the exhaustive can be truly interesting”, and here in particular the Retraction Watch format left too little scope to wallow in the gory details.

So here is the dream-team of “Asim”, “Chapron” and “Babanin” again, collaborating with Chen and Chen on “Systems Design for Energy Demand by Optimal Utilization of Renewable Energy in Robust Aquaponic Systems” (Chen et al 2018) [12]. This review of wave-energy technology reused the content of “Determination of the right wave by empirical statistics: The wave energy resource assessment and the investigation of existing marine and coastal potential compatibility” (Chen 2016) [9].

But the 2016 version was more of a prospectus or an aspirational outline than an actual paper, going straight from bold promises of calculations and conclusions to a review of the calculations / conclusions without bothering with the calculations / conclusions themselves. The sparseness of the source obliged the 2018 authors to pad that version out with bizarrely extraneous material pirated from elsewhere.

“Chapron” and “Tasawar Hayat” feature in “Optimal Fuzzy Design of Chua’s Circuit System” (Chen et al 2019) [20], which shamelessly strip-mines “Taming chaotic systems with dithers” (Hsiao, Hwang & Tsai 2001) for text and illustrations.

The imaginary-friend status of “Bertrand / Bert Chapron” is complicated by sightings of a variant form. Nertrand Kapron‘s single opuscule “Using Evolving ANN-Based Algorithm Models for Accurate Meteorological Forecasting Applications in Vietnam” (Chen, Kapron & Chen 2020) [23] was self-plagiarised from “Meteorological Tidal Predictions in the Mekong Estuary Using an Evolved ANN Time Series” (Chen & Chen 2019) [15].

In the course of Act II, not all the papers are flagged at PubPeer. Low-profile outlets become proportionately more important, some of these journals don’t assign DOIs to their contents (a prerequisite for reviewing them at PubPeer), and those that do assign DOIs are not always in a hurry to validate them by registering them with the DOI Foundation. If there is enough enthusiasm, non-pubpeerified papers might still become part of the spreadsheet anyway. Fewer libraries subscribe to these journals, in turn reducing the visibility of the papers to archiving / access resources like Sc*-H*b.

To alleviate the monotony of an unbroken relentless wall of self-citation in the Reference sections, the author information is often edited… the authorship of Chen-related papers might be truncated to the first (junior) author, or replaced with some other name entirely. This is a revival of the fine old scholastic tradition of ‘pseudepigrapha‘, where scholars would ascribe their own scrivening to older, authoritative writers, and I approve.

Systematic fuzzy Navier–Stokes equations for aerospace vehicles” (Chen et al 2022) [31].“State response of the system” for temperature cooling fins of high-speed aerospace vehicles, or deep-sea drilling rigs? At right: Fig 1 from “Stability analysis of an oceanic structure using the Lyapunov method” (Chen et al 2010) [4].

Which brings us back to the recycled illustrations. Who could have predicted that a Neural-Networked algorithm and a “T-S Fuzzy” algorithm for active building stabilisation would respond to a simulated re-run of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake with identical “modeling error” charts? Or that the same plot would also emerge from the rear wheel displacement in a (simulated) car suspension algorithm?

Fig 4 from “Modeling and control for nonlinear structural systems via a NN-based approach” (Chen 2009) [2]; Fig 3 from “Application of Fuzzy-model-based Control to Nonlinear Structural Systems with Time Delay: an LMI Method” (Chen 2020) [3]; Fig 7 from “Grey FNN control and robustness design for practical nonlinear systems” (Chen et al 2021) [30].

Meanwhile the vertical displacement of the front wheel in that car suspension simulation turns out to have the same modeling errors as building stability in two more earthquake-algorithm simulations.

Fig 6 from [30]; Fig 6 from “Stability analysis and robustness design of nonlinear systems: An NN-based approach” (Chen 2011) [5] Fig 5 from “Robustness design of time-delay fuzzy systems using fuzzy Lyapunov method” (Yeh, Chen & Chen 2008) [1].

Chen and Chen applied optimisation algorithms to problems that ranged from a simple inverted-pendulum situation [8], through stabilising drilling platforms against waves [18] and buildings against (several different) simulated earthquakes, to active vehicle suspension and “nondimensionalized fractional model of immunogenic tumors“. Please share my surprise that the algorithm’s performance across 30 experimental runs (or 40) was identical whatever the problem.

Alert readers will have noticed that the narrative has shifted to the domain of ‘optimisation algorithms’, and in particular to swarm intelligence algorithms. These are powerful Worship Words. Think of optimisation problems with multiple adjustable parameters as landscapes in a high-dimensional space (with one dimension per parameter), where the goal is to find the peak: the point (combination of parameter settings) where the ‘fitness function’ is highest. “Climbing Mount Improbable”, as it were, though the judges would also accept Mount Analogue.

Simple algorithms always move uphill from random starting-points, but they run the risk of ending up stuck on a ‘foothill’ (a local maximum that is not the global, best-possible optimum). Genetic algorithms have multiple climbers, with starting-points that are sometimes random and sometimes interpolated between the locations of successful climbers. In ‘swarm intelligence’ these multiple alpinists within ‘parameter space’ have other channels to share information about their progress, coordinating their efforts and reducing duplicate calculations.

A whole bestiary of biology-themed metaphors proliferated, with the rationale that by mimicking animal survival strategies they were tapping into the timeless wisdom of Evolution itself. We encounter wolf packs and salp swarms and beehives and ants and velociraptors and Evolved Bats. Whoever came up with the Cat Swarm Algorithm, in the fond belief that cats ‘swarm’ and share intelligence, had not spent much time with our feline overlords. An understanding of metaheuristics is not a prerequisite for following the Chen saga. In fact it is not even helpful, and the preceding paragraphs are only there to display the shallows of my incomprehension.

[Guston, 1976: “Load of old shoes awaiting load of old cobblers”]

In 2012 Pei-Wei Tsai introduced Evolved Bat optimisation. This is a load of old cobblers even by the lax standards of this literature, creating the opportunity for Tsai to write a series of follow-up papers about various refinements and improvements to the EvBat Algorithm (EBA) in the hope of making it work. Don’t expect this to make sense, even in its own terms… the alpinists in the multidimensional landscape are imagined as bats a-hunting, sending out pulses of ultrasound, though these pulses are just metaphors for randomised choices and serve no echo-location role.

Tsai ill-advisedly teamed up with C.-W. Chen to write “A novel criterion for nonlinear time-delay systems using LMI fuzzy Lyapunov method” (Tsai & Chen 2014) [8]. In 2016 the collaboration grew to include Hayat and Alsaedi [10]. His coauthor promptly adopted the EBA as part of his own artistic practice, and repeatedly presents it as a Chen innovation. Sometimes the recycled descriptions are engarbled with ‘tortured phrases’, so that “pulse” becomes “heart rate”, I AM NOT MAKING THIS UP [30].

  • “a. Initialization: distribute artificial reagents by random assignment in the solution chamber.”
  • “b. Movement: The artificial sample is moved. Generate a random number and check if it is greater than the fixed heart rate. If the result is positive, you can move the artificial remedy on a random walk”
  • “c. Evaluation: calculate the suitability of the artificial remedy using a custom suitability function, and update it to the best stored solution.”
  • “d. Termination: The termination status is checked to determine if you want to return to STEP 2 or end the program shortly and generate the best solution. The evaluation criteria for determining the condition of the club are based on a user-defined training function.”
  • “Therefore, the same experiment is chosen to airy in which bats live. The total size indicates solution area for each iteration. We determine the total number and size of possible solutions that are considered sufficient to determine the parameters of the complex cloudy system in the application.”

But wait, there’s more! “Fuzzy C-means robust algorithm for nonlinear systems” (Chen, Kuo & Chen 2021) [27]. I suppose we should be grateful not to find “pulse” mistranslated as “lentil”.

  • “Generate a random number and check whether it is greater than the fixed discharge heart rate
  • “In the case of determining the result, the virtual operator will move with an irregular gait [random walk].”
  • “The well-being of the virtual operator is determined by the customer’s specific well-being ability [fitness function] and updated until it is close to the best activity.”

The curious term “tinny intelligence” is one marker for recycling. Clockwise from upper left: [18], “An Intelligent Algorithm Optimum for Building Design of Fuzzy Structures” (Chen et al 2020) [29], [10], [31].

The passage seems to have evolved from Tsai’s EBA papers:

“Inspired by the tinny intelligent behaviors in biome, many swarm intelligence algorithms have been developed such as flower pollination algorithm [10], Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm [6], Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm [7], firefly algorithm [19], and Bat Algorithm (BA) [18]. Optimization problem can be solved efficiently by these swarm intelligence algorithms. Algorithms in swarm intelligence are also employed to solve engineering problems in many different fields.”

To be scrupulously fair to the EBA, conceivably it works, and our friends only copy-paste the same performance plot in situation after situation because they never bother to apply it.

The stochastic indeterminacy of these algorithms does not strike me as a perfect match with the notion of defining a role of vibration-control rules and combining them in a fuzzy-set membership framework, allowing one to prove (via a rigorous chain of inequalities) that the combination will always tame the unstable chaos of nonlinearity. The notion, that is to say, at the heart of the Chen oeuvre. But I am not a Highly Cited Author.

So it turns out that Tim Chen’s contract with Ton Duc Thang University was not renewed after July 2021, on account of academic misdemeanour. This became public via a Vietnamese news-site (here, here, and here). So Act II ends with Tim and J. C.-Y. Chen disappearing from the scene in turn:

“However, due to the discovery that he showed signs of violating the school’s regulations on integrity in scientific research, the university ended the working contract with Mr. Tim Chen from July 2021”

You might wonder how TDTU came to appoint Tim as a Professor, and about the completeness and accuracy of the credentials he presented when applying for the post, and how diligently they were checked. You would not be alone. In the news-site’s Comments threads, no-one seemed too surprised, and the dominant mood was all “What can you expect from TDTU?” It seems to have a reputation.

[left] Tim Chen preparing a PPT. [right] Original slide. H/t

* * * * * * * * * *

Do not worry about the journals, or about their supply of edifying fabrications. A new dynamic duo has stepped up to maintain the flow, Timothy and Z.-Y. Chen. Chena´ and Chenb´ if you like. They are demonstrably our twins again, with an unbroken continuity of citation-stacking and recycled text, equations and figures. Just saying, it gives the game away when a paper with Timothy Chen as corresponding author [30] has “John Cheng” on the cover page.

Timothy has an email account at Guangdong University of Petrochem Technology, and is affiliated to the Division of Engineering and Applied Science at CalTech. Z.-Y. remains nomadic with a shifting portfolio of unverified, evanescent affiliations. They collaborate with Yahui Meng, also from Guangdong University of Petrochem Technology, who seems to be less fictional than usual. So far there are only seven Act-III papers but we will follow developments. In particular we will monitor the Retraction Watch leaderboard. Perhaps David Cronenberg can be persuaded by the improbability of the Chens’ combined career into adapting it for cinema, as a remake of Dead Ringers.

* * * * * * * * * *

PRO-TIP: When you have fabricated survey results in a pretence that they came from 614 or 815 science-education students from multiple unspecified universities across Australia, and then you decide that the fraud would be more convincing if it pretended to involve post-grad students at Swinburne University of Technology (Melbourne), a global “s/Australia/Postgraduate students of Swinburne university” search-and-replace is not your friend.

“An empirical study among science education majors in postgraduate students of an Australian university” (Chen, Kuo & Chen 2019) [19].

I don’t know why they picked Swinburne. It is unlikely to be a homage to Ali Nazari, the renowned and well-remunerated concrete-recipe fabulist. Was it to troll P.-W. Tsai, the bat-algorithm theorist, who is based there now?


  1. “Robustness design of time-delay fuzzy systems using fuzzy Lyapunov method”, Ken Yeh, Chen-Yuan Chen, Cheng-Wu Chen, Applied Mathematics & Computation (2008) doi: 10.1016/j.amc.2008.05.104 [PubPeer]
  2. “Modeling and control for nonlinear structural systems via a NN-based approach”, Cheng-Wu Chen, Expert Systems with Applications (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2008.06.062 [PubPeer]
  3. “Application of Fuzzy-model-based Control to Nonlinear Structural Systems with Time Delay: an LMI Method”, Cheng-Wu Chen, Journal of Vibration & Control (2010) doi: 10.1177/1077546309104185 [PubPeer]
  4. “Stability analysis of an oceanic structure using the Lyapunov method”, Cheng‐Wu Chen, Chien‐wen Shen, Chen‐Yuan Chen, Ming‐Jen Cheng, Engineering Computations (2010) doi: 10.1108/02644401011022364 [PubPeer]
  5. “Stability analysis and robustness design of nonlinear systems: An NN-based approach”, Cheng-Wu Chen, Applied Soft Computing (2011) doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2010.11.004 [PubPeer]
  6. “How to manipulate interactive E-book on learning natural catastrophe—An example of structural mechanics using power machine”. Bih-Yaw Shih, Tsung-Hao Chen, Ming-Hung Cheng, Chen-Yuan Chen, Bo-Wei Chen, Natural Hazards (2013) doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0413-0 [PubPeer]
  7. “Storm surge prediction with management information systems: A case study of estimating value and observations system”. C. Y. Chen, T. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, S. E. Yu, P. Y. Chun, Natural Hazards (2013) doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0533-6 [PubPeer]
  8. “A novel criterion for nonlinear time-delay systems using LMI fuzzy Lyapunov method”. Pei-Wei Tsai & Cheng-Wu Chen, Applied Soft Computing (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2014.08.045 [PubPeer]
  9. “Determination of the right wave by empirical statistics: The wave energy resource assessment and the investigation of existing marine and coastal potential compatibility”, C.Y.J. Chen, Journal of Ocean Engineering & Science (2016) doi: 10.1016/j.joes.2016.09.002 [PubPeer]
  10. “A novel control algorithm for interaction between surface waves and a permeable floating structure”. Pei-Wei Tsai, A. Alsaedi, T. Hayat, Cheng-Wu Chen, China Ocean Engineering (2016) doi: 10.1007/s13344-016-0009 [PubPeer]
  11. “First order derivative spectrophotometric technique and coefficients validation for contemporaneous determination of oral diabetes medicines”. Tim Chen, Bassamm Ayoub, Samy Mohamady, J.C.-Y. Chen, Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy (2018) doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2018.11.046 [PubPeer]
  12. “Systems Design for Energy Demand by Optimal Utilization of Renewable Energy in Robust Aquaponic Systems”, Tim Chen, Asim Muhammad, Bertrand Chapron, C.Y.J. Chen, Alexander Babanin, Energy and Earth Science (2018) doi: 10.22158/ees.v1n1p33 [PubPeer]
  13. “A New Tool Preliminary Assessment on Temporal-Comorbidity Adjusted Risk of Emergency Readmission (T-CARER)”, Tim Chen, Asim Muhammad, Bertrand Chapron, C. Y. J. Chen, Alexander Babanin, Energy and Earth Science (2018) doi: 10.22158/ees.v1n1p42 [PubPeer]
  14. “New Math Teaching Methodologies for English Language E-Learners Students”. Tim Chen, Diana Auidi, Rim Gouioa, Bertrand Chapron, C.Y.J. Chen, Hoe Wee, Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society (2019) doi: 10.20368/1971-8829/1564 [PubPeer]
  15. “Meteorological Tidal Predictions in the Mekong Estuary Using an Evolved ANN Time Series”, Tim Chen & C.Y.J. Chen, Marine Technology Society Journal (2019) doi: 10.4031/mtsj.53.6.3 [PubPeer]
  16. “An intelligent fuzzy theory for ocean structure system analysis”. Tim Chen, C.Y.J. Cheng, Sharaban Tahura Nisa, Jonathan Olivera, Ocean Systems Engineering (2019) doi: 10.12989/ose.2019.9.2.179 [PubPeer]
  17. “A New Tool Preliminary Assessment on Temporal-Comorbidity Adjusted Risk of Emergency Readmission (T-CARER)”. Tim Chen, Hendri Daleanu & J.C.-Y. Chen, Sumerianz Journal of Scientific Research (2019).
  18. “A relaxed structural mechanics and fuzzy control for fluid–structure dynamic analysis”. Tim Chen, Safiullahand Khurram, CYJ Cheng, Engineering Computations (2019) doi: 10.1108/ec-11-2018-0522 [PubPeer]
  19. “An empirical study among science education majors in postgraduate students of an Australian university”, Tim Chen, Feiching Kuo, John C.Y Chen, Computer Applications in Engineering Education (2019) doi: 10.1002/cae.8 [PubPeer]
  20. “Optimal Fuzzy Design of Chua’s Circuit System”, Chih-Ching Hung, Tim Chen, Abu Abi Astolfi, Singires Rio Rao, Bertrand Chapron, Hong-Tsu Young, Chencheng Wutim, Tasawar Hayat, CYJ Chen, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information & Control (2019) doi: 10.24507/ijicic.15.06.2355 [PubPeer]
  21. “A New Viewpoint on Control Algorithms for Anthropomorphic Robotic Arms”. Tim Chen & J. C-y Chen, Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems (2020) doi: 10.1007/s10846-020-01149-5 [PubPeer]
  22. “LMI Robust Fuzzy C-Means Control for Nonlinear Systems”. Tim Chen & C. Y. J. Chen, Journal of Control, Automation & Electrical Systems (2021) doi: 10.1007/s40313-021-00715-y [PubPeer]
  23. “Using Evolving ANN-Based Algorithm Models for Accurate Meteorological Forecasting Applications in Vietnam”, Tim Chen, N. Kapron, J. C.-Y. Chen, Mathematical Problems in Engineering (2020) doi: 10.1155/2020/8179652 [PubPeer]
  24. “System simulation and synchronization for optimal evolutionary design of nonlinear controlled systems”, C.Y.J. Chen, D. Kuo, Chia-Yen Hsieh, Tim Chen, Smart Structures & Systems (2020) doi: 10.12989/sss.2020.26.6.797 [PubPeer]
  25. “A new fractional model and optimal control to model chaotic problems”. Timothy Chen, Bunnitru Daleanu, Doukaima Souissi, Tim Chen, Lucian Nie Oksendal, J. C. Y. Chen, Journal of Information & Optimization Sciences (2021) doi: 10.1080/02522667.2019.1698400 [PubPeer]
  26. “Evolved predictive vibration control for offshore platforms based on the Lyapunov stability criterion”. Tim Chen, D. Kuo, M. Huiwi, T. Gong-Yo, J.C.-Y. Chen, Ships and Offshore Structures (2020) doi: 10.1080/17445302.2020.1776548 [PubPeer]
  27. “Fuzzy C-means robust algorithm for nonlinear systems”, Tim Chen, D. Kuo, C. Y. J. Chen, Soft Computing (2021) doi: 10.1007/s00500-021-05655-y [PubPeer]
  28. “Hazard analysis and monitoring for debris flow based on intelligent fuzzy detection”, Tim Chen, D. Kuo, J.C.Y. Chen, Structural Monitoring and Maintenance (2020) doi: 10.12989/smm.2020.7.1.059 [PubPeer]
  29. “An Intelligent Algorithm Optimum for Building Design of Fuzzy Structures”. Tim Chen, Sinngiresu Rao, Ramazaov Tlekkabul Sabitovich, Bertraind Chapron, C. Y. J. Chen, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering (2020) doi: 10.1007/s40996-019-00251-5 [PubPeer]
  30. “Grey FNN control and robustness design for practical nonlinear systems”, ZY Chen, Yahui Meng, Ruei-yuan Wang, Timothy Chen, Journal of Engineering Research (2021) doi: 10.36909/jer.11273 [PubPeer]
  31. “Systematic fuzzy Navier–Stokes equations for aerospace vehicles”, ZY Chen, Yahui Meng, Ruei-Yuan Wang, Timothy Chen, Aircraft Engineering & Aerospace Technology (2022) doi: 10.1108/aeat-06-2020-0109 [PubPeer]


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4 comments on “Chen bacon sausage and Chen; Chen egg Chen Chen bacon and Chen…

  1. For God’s sake: why?


  2. At this level, it’s beyond fraud, it’s some kind of artistic experiment.


  3. We need more doll papers (Quantum Biology – 9).


  4. Pingback: Wiley: Committed to integrity? Get out! – For Better Science

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