Research integrity

George Iliakis, the pride of Ruhrgebiet

With the German professor George Iliakis, I would like to celebrate all the grand old patriarchs of cancer research who built this gigantic field and saved the lives of many patients, with good, solid and hard work. In Photoshop.

As someone with a strong connection to the Ruhrgebiet in Germany, and in particular to the city of Duisburg, I want to congratulate the University of Duisburg Essen to their stroke of genius 20 years ago in recruiting Dr George Iliakis as their faculty member and professor for medical radiation biology.

Professor Iliakis used to work at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, USA, and there he published his groundbreaking research on DNA damage and DNA repair, all of which will certainly pave the way to curing cancer. With Photoshop. Lots of it. You won’t believe how much, because the early 2000s were the Golden Age of Photoshop in biomedical sciences and everyone was doing it like there is no tomorrow. Come to think of it, many, if not all, of our today’s venerable grand old patriarchs of cancer research made it to where they are now also thanks to a certain artistic attitude to research data. Everyone wants their share of that past Photoshop stardom, and this is why the University Duisburg-Essen has cancer solved, all thanks to Professor George Iliakis.

Professor Iliakis presents his artwork to a fellow art connoisseur, Carlo Croce. Original photo: University Duisburg-Essen.

Iliakis is one of these great old men of science we are supposed to admire, because they did so much for cancer research. A native Greek, Iliakis did his PhD in Frankfurt, Germany. In early 1980ies he moved to USA, because this is how German academia worked. You do your doctoral degree, then you go to America for some years, and then you return to your waiting faculty chair, celebrated as the master of the great art of American science, which is truly superior to everything the rest of the world ever achieved.

Iliakis stayed in USA for 18 years, and made a great career at Kimmel Cancer Center, as director of the Division of Experimental Radiation Oncology. But at some point Iliakis mysteriously had enough of American money and fame, so he left his huge American salary and his gigantic NIH funding behind, in order to move to the world-renowned university clinic of the world-top-ranking University of Duisburg-Essen in world’s fanciest location, the Ruhrgebiet, surprisingly modestly funded by the DFG. Professor Iliakis will soon retire, having trained many young scientists in the high art of cancer research.

Now the image integrity sleuth Clare Francis looked at some of Iliakis papers from USA, posted his finds on PubPeer, and found artistic beauty where others would find despair.

J Guan , E Stavridi , DB. Leeper , G Iliakis Effects of hyperthermia on p53 protein expression and activity Journal of Cellular Physiology (2002) DOI: 10.1002/jcp.10069

Now, p53 is a very important protein in cancer research, and it can do funny things under hyperthermic conditions. Somehow some bands from Figure 1C cloned and inserted themselves into the gels of Figure 1B, having been cooled from 41°C to 37°C. Professor Iliakis and his first author Jun Guan however explained that this is perfectly OK:

“We noticed this issue before sending out our work for publication. As I mentioned in my previous comment, the highlighted bands of each control circled in the red and blue boxes were obtained in different experiments.”

For them, the issue is closed. Neither Iliakis nor Guan ever commented again, which is a pity.

Wang H, Perrault AR, Takeda Y, Qin W, Wang H, Iliakis G. Biochemical evidence for Ku-independent backup pathways of NHEJ Nucleic Acids Research (2003) doi: 10.1093/nar/gkg728

In these examples, Professor Iliakis’ group studied non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair and found out it to be actually a splicing tool in Adobe Photoshop. Basically, here damaged academic pride activates a Photoshop-mediated figure recombination process, where a piece of gel lanes gets replicated and spliced where it achieves novel results.

One year later, in the same journal, Iliakis studied how DNA is replicated after damage. It turned out, the same mechanism replicates gel bands, quite hilariously so.

X Wang , J Guan , B Hu , RS Weiss , G Iliakis , Y Wang Involvement of Hus1 in the chain elongation step of DNA replication after exposure to camptothecin or ionizing radiation Nucleic Acids Research (2004) doi: 10.1093/nar/gkh243

In America, they do big science and they do it properly. What you see here, is advanced US technology, sponsored by many millions from NIH. Of course University of Duisburg-Essen was honoured to host such star scientist in their university clinic. Just look at this high-tech gel:

Clare Francis suggested this figure looks like an artwork by Paul Klee.

Even the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Nucleic Acids Research (NAR) and University of Southampton professor Keith Fox was impressed by the artwork. Fox replied to Clare Francis in January 2020:

“Thank you for drawing these things to our attention. We will investigate and take any appropriate action.”

It is not clear which action Fox meant, since his own NAR until recently used to have a policy not to do anything about papers older than 2 years. The usual action NAR editors take in such cases, is to write to authors not to worry since the journal does not to intend to act in any way.

NAR guidelines from June 2019. The highlighted sentence was removed since.

Much of Iliakis’ groundbreaking research at Kimmel Cancer Center, like this beautiful Wang et al NAR 2004 paper, was done in collaboration with the radiation oncologist Ya Wang, originally from China. Professor Wang now moved on to the Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University in Atlanta, where she continues to receive much NIH money for her extraordinary cancer research. Wang’s specific qualifications are certified by around 20 papers flagged on PubPeer for Photoshop data enhancement.

This Iliakis-Wang collaboration is also artistically valuable, even if somewhat lazily executed.

H Wang, H Wang, SN. Powell, G Iliakis, Y Wang ATR affecting cell radiosensitivity is dependent on homologous recombination repair but independent of nonhomologous end joining Cancer Research (2004) doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.can-04-1289

What happens when you irradiate cells, is that gel bands get replicated in the process of non-homologous end joining.

That we already learned, from other Iliakis studies. But there is also this process of homologous recombination, where flow cytometry plots get replicated and recombined with different numbers. That happens when fantastic research needs to be published in a journal where nobody cares about such things. As AACR journal Cancer Research at least used to be. In fact, in 2002, Iliakis and Wang placed two papers in Cancer Research which have certain artistic quality to them.

X Wang , GC Li , G Iliakis , Y Wang Ku affects the CHK1-dependent G(2) checkpoint after ionizing radiation Cancer Research (2002) Nov 1;62(21):6031-4.

Apparently, there is a kind of checkpoint activated by the DNA damage where gel bands are forced, under gun point presumably, to exit their gel vehicles and join some previously arrested gel bands inside a different panel of the same figure, for interrogation. Sometime these gel bands are just shuffled back and forth inside same gel until they admit to smuggling and document forgery, like in this other Cancer Research paper:

XY Zhou , X Wang , B Hu , J Guan , G Iliakis , Y Wang An ATM-independent S-phase checkpoint response involves CHK1 pathway Cancer Research (2002) Mar 15;62(6):1598-603.

The two Cancer Research papers from 2002 also share a joint figure, even if they are supposed to show different experiments with different antisense oligonucleotide sequences:

As reminder, these papers were all published after 2001, when Iliakis moved to Essen, most of them bear his Ruhrgebiet affiliation. I personally am enormously proud for the University of Duisburg-Essen. Professor Iliakis is an asset, may he never retire.


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22 comments on “George Iliakis, the pride of Ruhrgebiet

  1. Carlo Croce has proudly said he has an eye for masterpieces. The Paul Klee imitation could be a part of his collection.

    Is the best analogy that of non-homolgous recombination, or multiple transposons at work?

    I really believe that if the deadwood and cheating faculty were to magically disappear (that would indeed be great magic), 1/2 the faculty would be gone, and probably more than half of the NIH grant money would be no longer wasted on overheads for deadwood salaries and supplies for crap data from cheater labs.

    I think my inscription on my tombstone might be: “I’m dead, sure, but at least I wasn’t deadwood.”

    Like

    • alfricabos

      Can you imagine if the NIH was actively looking at fraud in its current grant applications? even better, if they were to retroactively search for fraud in funded research?

      Like

  2. ” Professor Wang now moved on to the Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University in Atlanta, where she continues to receive much NIH money for her extraordinary cancer research. Wang’s specific qualifications are certified by around 20 papers flagged on PubPeer for Photoshop data enhancement.”

    Because of the relatively few Chinese surnames the Pubpeer link includes some who are not Ya Wang.

    Individual publications for Ya Wang at Pubpeer:-

    https://pubpeer.com/publications/7C72D7E9C8A890CEB3047CFC589551
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/EE6997F1FB6F9335BD0551EE7D3636
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/066655B948187638D608BD75D1B50D
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/18A0E30C6D4205E360B669E22FF51A
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/AFBB0B94FDAB595CC55B1749C1D3F3
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/2F179E20A4CCC0F24F6967A12C60D5
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/3BBE9AC981E17776992228B6853F13
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/98D85BC9346DAC066C712EA71BA0C8
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/61FD90D5A9980A4FC629A25A0E398B
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/8E0171A08C96EB7E1A87CD8DBAB867
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/FD1029AC5D8F9576E6E74A5DFD4619
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/D3BAD4F56E914C444ED0287839AF92
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/6776A10A9EFF5FC9B56F44B7BA4B9B
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/806266B39DC76070FCED5B21B50E7A
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/7499ABC79483C2B03875C70103743A
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/DC2564045814E6CDC89A7A980291C4
    https://pubpeer.com/publications/FD71866CC27696DA5AB6FFADAD76B6

    Like

  3. “Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University”.
    Is there something about the ecological niche?

    https://honours.pmc.gov.au/honours/awards/2004645
    Thomas Jefferson University, and University Hospital Philadelphia
    “Director, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Centre, 2005-2015.”

    “Georgetown University and University Hospital, Washington, DC”
    2002-2005.

    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York
    1996-2002.

    Pubpeer record.
    https://pubpeer.com/search?q=pestell

    Like

  4. What disturbs me about many papers by George Iliakis is the lack of data which can be scrutinised. Many papers show graphs, which we have to take a face value. David Latchman also has many publications where there are only graphs.

    Like

  5. Problematic data Director of the Gastrointestinal Oncology Program Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University
    https://winshipcancer.emory.edu/bios/faculty/el-rayes-bassel.html

    Angiogenesis. 2013 Oct;16(4):903-17.

    Angiogenesis. 2013 Oct;16(4):903-17. doi: 10.1007/s10456-013-9364-7. Epub 2013 Jul 10.
    Antiangiogenic effects of ganetespib in colorectal cancer mediated through inhibition of HIF-1α and STAT-3.
    Nagaraju GP1, Park W, Wen J, Mahaseth H, Landry J, Farris AB, Willingham F, Sullivan PS, Proia DA, El-Hariry I, Taliaferro-Smith L, Diaz R, El-Rayes BF.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University, 1365 Clifton RD NE, Office 2080, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

    Figure 6b. Much more similar than you would expect.

    Like

  6. https://winshipcancer.emory.edu/bios/faculty/el-rayes-bassel.html

    Education

    After completion of the residency, he joined the hematology oncology fellowship program at the Karmanos Cancer Institute at Wayne State University.

    Mol Cancer Ther. 2004 Nov;3(11):1421-6.
    Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent and -independent effects of celecoxib in pancreatic cancer cell lines.
    El-Rayes BF1, Ali S, Sarkar FH, Philip PA.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 4100 John R. Street, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

    https://pubpeer.com/publications/6468FFE1ACB20CC65658915E3C0024

    Figure 4. Much more similar than you would expect.

    Like

  7. 2016 retraction for Director of the Gastrointestinal Oncology Program Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University
    https://winshipcancer.emory.edu/bios/faculty/el-rayes-bassel.html

    J Cell Biochem. 2010 May;110(1):171-81. doi: 10.1002/jcb.22523.
    Concurrent inhibition of NF-kappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor leads to greater anti-tumor activity in pancreatic cancer.
    Ali S1, Banerjee S, Schaffert JM, El-Rayes BF, Philip PA, Sarkar FH.
    Author information
    1
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

    https://pubpeer.com/publications/A3845DA138FC83780CB5071ED74AEC

    2016 retraction notice.
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcb.25586

    The above article, published online on March 8, 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figures 2A, 4, 6A, and 6C to be inappropriately manipulated.

    REFERENCE

    Ali S, Banerjee S, Schaffert JM, El‐Rayes BF, Philip PA, Sarkar FH. 2010. Concurrent inhibition of NF‐κB, cyclooxygenase‐2, and epidermal growth factor receptor leads to greater anti‐tumor activity in pancreatic cancer. J Cell Biochem 110:171–181; doi: 10.1002/jcb.22523

    Like

  8. 2018 retraction for Director of the Gastrointestinal Oncology Program Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University
    https://winshipcancer.emory.edu/bios/faculty/el-rayes-bassel.html

    Cancer Res. 2006 Nov 1;66(21):10553-9.
    Potentiation of the effect of erlotinib by genistein in pancreatic cancer: the role of Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB.
    El-Rayes BF1, Ali S, Ali IF, Philip PA, Abbruzzese J, Sarkar FH.
    Author information
    1
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

    https://pubpeer.com/publications/83CC20E5BF07ED1EC6E26D32AA50E5

    2018 retraction notice.
    http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/78/18/5472
    This article (1) has been retracted at the request of the editors. Following an institutional review by Wayne State University (Detroit, MI), the primary affiliation for several of the authors, it was determined that the article (1) included falsification and/or fabrication of Western blot bands in multiple panels of Figs. 2 and 5. As a result of these findings, the institution recommended retraction and, upon internal review, the editors agree with this recommendation.

    A copy of this Retraction Notice was sent to the last known email addresses for four of the six authors. Three authors (B.F. El-Rayes, P.A. Philip, and J. Abbruzzese) agreed to the retraction; one author (F.H. Sarkar) did not respond; the two remaining authors (S. Ali and I.F. Ali) could not be located.

    Like

  9. Life Sci. 2009 May 22;84(21-22):766-71. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2009.03.007. Epub 2009 Mar 24.
    Protein kinases C isozymes are differentially expressed in human breast carcinomas.
    Ali S1, Al-Sukhun S, El-Rayes BF, Sarkar FH, Heilbrun LK, Philip PA.
    Author information
    1
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, United States.

    Figures 1 and 3. Much more similar than you would expect, except the samples are different.

    https://pubpeer.com/publications/DA2C4BCB5B8674EA11483A9C6C24C2

    Not much use as Director of the Gastrointestinal Oncology Program Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University if he cannot spot problematic data in his own publications.

    Like

    • Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 1;10(13):4412-6.Cytochrome p450 and glutathione transferase expression in squamous cell cancer.Ali S1, El-Rayes BF, Heilbrun LK, Sarkar FH, Ensley JF, Kucuk O, Philip PA.Author information1Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

      Figure 2. 

      Like

  10. Is it a Philadelphia thing?

    I thought UPenn was a good school.
    J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 22;277(12):9929-35. Epub 2002 Jan 11.
    Mutation in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene leads to inactivation of Ku DNA end binding during oxidative stress.
    Ayene IS1, Stamato TD, Mauldin SK, Biaglow JE, Tuttle SW, Jenkins SF, Koch CJ.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Figure 6. Much more similar than you would expect.

    Like

  11. 2020 retraction for:

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2004 Feb 3;32(2):767-75. Print 2004.
    Involvement of Hus1 in the chain elongation step of DNA replication after exposure to camptothecin or ionizing radiation.
    Wang X1, Guan J, Hu B, Weiss RS, Iliakis G, Wang Y.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center of Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    https://pubpeer.com/publications/066655B948187638D608BD75D1B50D

    2020 retraction notice.
    https://academic.oup.com/nar/article/48/6/3396/5755884

    In Figure 4B, multiple bands have been duplicated. While these irregularities may not fundamentally affect the results and conclusions, the Editors nonetheless note that such manipulation of data and corresponding figures is unacceptable, and request retraction of the article.

    Like

  12. 2nd Aprl 2020 2020 Expression of Concern for:

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Sep 15;31(18):5377-88.
    Biochemical evidence for Ku-independent backup pathways of NHEJ.
    Wang H1, Perrault AR, Takeda Y, Qin W, Wang H, Iliakis G.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Experimental Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    Pubpeer comments: https://pubpeer.com/publications/2BC3C7154878B1BF3C04BCBC1844FE

    2020 Expression of Concern.
    https://academic.oup.com/nar/advance-article/doi/10.1093/nar/gkaa228/5815011

    The Authors and Editors wish to jointly publish an Expression of Concern regarding the above article.

    The Editors wish to alert the readers that questions have been raised about the validity of some of the figures presented in this article.

    In Figure 2B, some lanes have been duplicated as described below:

    The sample of HeLa without NHS was lost, the authors duplicated the lane of HeLa with 0.05μl NHS.

    The sample of M059-J with 0.2μl of NHS was lost, the authors duplicated the lane of M059-J with 0.025μl of NHS.

    Lane 7 of Figure 3B (M059-J, probe only) has been copied from a different experiment.

    While these irregularities may not fundamentally affect the results and conclusions of the article, the Editors nonetheless note that such manipulations of data and corresponding figures is unacceptable. The authors concur and deeply regret the transgression.

    Keith Fox, Senior Executive Editor, Nucleic Acids Research

    Barry Stoddard, Senior Executive Editor, Nucleic Acids Research

    Like

  13. Data in Mol Cancer Ther. 2013 Oct;12(10):2200-12 from PLoS One. 2013 Sep 3;8(9):e74670, yet the xenografts are derived from different cell lines.

    Figure 6B Mol Cancer Ther. 2013 Oct;12(10):2200-12. Much more similar than you would expect, although the xenografts are derived from different cell lines.

    Mol Cancer Ther. 2013 Oct;12(10):2200-12. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-13-0095. Epub 2013 Jul 26.
    Niclosamide overcomes acquired resistance to erlotinib through suppression of STAT3 in non-small cell lung cancer.
    Li R1, Hu Z, Sun SY, Chen ZG, Owonikoko TK, Sica GL, Ramalingam SS, Curran WJ, Khuri FR, Deng X.
    Author information
    1
    Corresponding Author: Xingming Deng, Division of Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.

    PLoS One. 2013 Sep 3;8(9):e74670. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074670. eCollection 2013.
    Inhibition of STAT3 by niclosamide synergizes with erlotinib against head and neck cancer.
    Li R1, You S, Hu Z, Chen ZG, Sica GL, Khuri FR, Curran WJ, Shin DM, Deng X.
    Author information
    1
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

    Like

  14. Zebedee

    1st May 2020 retraction for:

    J Biol Chem. 2014 Oct 31;289(44):30635-44. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.604959. Epub 2014 Sep 10.
    Distinct roles of Ape1 protein, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, in high or low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation-induced cell killing.
    Wang H1, Wang X1, Chen G1, Zhang X1, Tang X1, Park D1, Cucinotta FA2, Yu DS1, Deng X1, Dynan WS1, Doetsch PW1, Wang Y3.
    Author information
    1
    From the Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and.
    2
    the Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154.
    3
    From the Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322.

    Rectraction notice.
    https://www.jbc.org/content/295/18/6249

    VOLUME 289 (2014) PAGES 30635–30644

    This article has been withdrawn by Guangnan Chen, Dongkyoo Park, Francis A. Cucinotta, David S. Yu, Xingming Deng, William S. Dynan, Paul W. Doetsch, and Ya Wang. Hongyan Wang, Xiang Wang, Xiangming Zhang, and Xiaobing Tang could not be reached. The last two lanes of the actin immunoblot in Fig. 1A were reused in the last two lanes of the actin immunoblot in Fig. 1C. In Fig. 2A, the γ-H2AX and the merge with DAPI images for no IR treatment do not match. In Fig. 3A, lanes 3 and 4 of the γ-H2AX immunoblot were reused in lanes 7 and 8, and lanes 5 and 6 of the H2A immunoblot were reused in lanes 7 and 8. In Fig. 3B, lanes 5 and 6 of the H2A immunoblot were reused in lanes 7 and 8. In Fig. 3C, lanes 5 and 6 of the γ-H2AX immunoblot were reused in lanes 7 and 8. Additionally, lanes 1 and 2 of the H2A immunoblot were reused in lanes 3 and 4. In Fig. 3D, lanes 1 and 2 of the Mre11 immunoblot from lysates were reused in lanes 4 and 5. In the γ-H2AX immunoblot, lane 3 was reused in lane 7, and lane 4 was reused in lanes 6 and 8. Also in the H2A immunoblot, lanes 1 and 2 were reused in lanes 3 and 4. In Fig. 4B, lanes 2 and 6 of the Mre11 immunoblot from Ogg1−/− cells are the same. In the Ape1 immunoblot in Fig. 5C, lanes 3 and 5 are the same and lanes 6–8 are the same. Also, in the actin immunoblot, lanes 2 and 4 are the same.

    Like

  15. Zebedee

    1st May 2020 retraction for:

    J Biol Chem. 2017 Feb 24;292(8):3531-3540. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.772392. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    miR-21-mediated Radioresistance Occurs via Promoting Repair of DNA Double Strand Breaks.
    Hu B1, Wang X1, Hu S2, Ying X2, Wang P1, Zhang X1, Wang J1, Wang H1, Wang Y3.
    Author information
    1
    From the Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and.
    2
    the Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850, China.
    3
    From the Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322

    Retraction notice.
    https://www.jbc.org/content/295/18/6250

    VOLUME 292 (2017) PAGES 3531–3540

    This article has been withdrawn by Shuofeng Hu, Xiaomin Ying, Xiangming Zhang, and Ya Wang. Baocheng Hu, Xiang Wang, Ping Wang, Jian Wang, and Hongyan Wang could not be reached. In Fig. 1C, the DAPI and merged images for the no IR control were switched. The DNA-PKcs and actin immunoblots on the left appear to have been spliced. In Fig. 4C, the DNA-PKcs immunoblot appears to have been spliced. In Fig. 4D, lanes 1 and 5; lanes 2, 6, and 8; and lanes 3 and 7 of the DNA-PKcs immunoblot are the same. In the p-DNA-PKcs immunoblot, lanes 1 and 8, lanes 2 and 6, and lanes 3 and 7 are the same. In the CRY2 immunoblot, lanes 5 and 7 are the same. In the CDC25A immunoblot, lanes 3 and 8 are the same. In the GSK3B immunoblot, lanes 1 and 5 and lanes 3 and 7 are the same. Also in the GSK3B immunoblot, the upper GSK3B bands in lanes 6 and 8 are the same. Lanes 4 and 8 of the cyclin D1 immunoblot are the same. In Fig. 5A, the CDC25A immunoblot appears to have been spliced. Also in Fig. 5A, lanes 2–4 and lanes 6–8 of the CDC25A immunoblot are the same. Lanes 4–6 and 7–9 of the actin immunoblot are the same. In Fig. 5C, lane 1 of the CDC25A immunoblot was reused in lane 5, and lanes 3 and 4 were reused in lanes 7 and 8. In the GSK3B immunoblot, lanes 2–4 and lanes 6–8 are the same. Lane 1 of the cyclin D1 immunoblot was reused in lane 5, and lanes 3 and 4 were reused in lanes 7 and 8. Lanes 2–4 of the actin immunoblot were reused in lanes 6–8.

    Like

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