French science is a crazy place. There is so much data fakery going on that I personally can’t keep up, and only report on cases I find interesting myself, for some obscure and perverse reasons (maybe this Mediapart article helps, where I am portrayed as a Nazi sexual harasser). Hence, my sincere apologies to all those French cheaters who I haven’t managed to write about. It does not mean you are less important.
Apologies to Monsieur and Madame Egly of the University of Strasbourg, both of these cancer researchers have lovely PubPeer records: 15 papers for Cécile Rochette-Egly, and only 6, but quality entries for Jean-Marc Egly. The latter, who is known in Strasbourg for a somewhat violent personality, showed himself however very polite by commenting on PubPeer about this paper:
Monsieur Egly posted some freshly cooked data and informed everyone:
“We have full confidence in the findings and conclusions of the paper. However, in the interest of maintaining accuracy in the published scientific literature, we wish to contact the editorial in Molecular and Cellular Biology. #1 Image duplication results from carelessness during the construction of the Figure 4, which contains more than sixty different blots.“
If he says so. But now, over to another high-ranking scientist in France: the neuroscientist and toxicologist Charbel Massaad. He is director of the Faculty of Basic Sciences and Biomedicine at the Université Paris-Descartes, which comprises 4 CNRS and INSERM research institutes. In this position Massaad is the direct boss of the PubPeer founder and CNRS scientist Brandon Stell, who is employed at one of these 4 units, the Saints-Pères Paris Institute for the Neurosciences. Which probably concludes my Stell’s Bosses Tryptich, started with the CNRS chief biologist Catherine Jessus (whitewashed, critics persecuted, but eventually resigned), over the CNRS president Anne Peyroche (dethroned, shamed with fraud findings, and now symbolically punished with 2 weeks suspension because conclusions unaffected), and now, Massaad.
I tried to get Stell’s expert opinion on the PubPeer-listed papers from Massaad lab, but received no reply. Which is understandable: I am blocked by PubPeer on Twitter, and Stell himself once said that the world would be a better place without my website. But then how would the world know about all that Photoshopped fake science Stell’s bosses have published?
Massaad recently put forward his candidacy as president of his university, this is his campaign page. His programme had 9 goals, this was one of them:
#8 Ethical and responsible University.
Implement quality standards on administrative procedures, research platforms and diplomas
Train EC, researchers, IATSS and ITA during their internship period in scientific ethics and the challenges of the fight against fraud
Train students from the license and throughout their studies
(Master and PhD) in science ethics
Set up in the laboratories a network of “scientific integrity” officers linked to the central integrity referent
Sounds great, but maybe Massaad should start that research ethics training with himself? Look at this:
Julien Grenier , Amalia Trousson , Anne Chauchereau , Larbi Amazit , Audrey Lamirand , Philippe Leclerc , Anne Guiochon-Mantel , Michael Schumacher , Charbel Massaad Selective recruitment of p160 coactivators on glucocorticoid-regulated promoters in Schwann cells Molecular Endocrinology (2004) doi: 10.1210/me.2004-0241
It is a bit of a rather fraudulent mess, with cloned and reused 18S RT-PCR bands inside same gel and between figures, where western blotted SRC proteins 1, 2 and 3 are interchangeable and sometimes even become Actin. Massaad is certainly not worried, he commented eventually (typo his):
“Julien Grenier and I retreived a large part of the raw data yesterday. We are currently examining them and will respond promptly to your comments.“
The message was co-signed by Julien Grenier, now associate professor at Massaad’s department at Université Paris-Descartes, Unit T3S (Environmental Toxicity, Therapeutic Targets, Cellular Signaling and Biomarkers). With Grenier and Massaad investigating, who will be the unlucky scapegoat for that paper?
Massaad posted an identical comment on a sister paper, published 2 years later, where the fake figure 3B from Grenier et al 2004 returned as Figure 5D of Grenier et al 2006, with some additional extra-fakery:
Julien Grenier , Amalia Trousson , Anne Chauchereau , Jean Cartaud , Michael Schumacher , Charbel Massaad Differential recruitment of p160 coactivators by glucocorticoid receptor between Schwann cells and astrocytes Molecular Endocrinology (2006) doi: 10.1210/me.2005-0061
Those emboldened, the authors dumped even more Photoshop-fabricated stuff into that “scientific study”, some again reused from the artificial Grenier et al 2004 paper, some falsified de novo:
It takes balls to publish such surreal Photoshop cornucopia and then to declare yourself as champion of research integrity in your university rectorship campaign. Yet this was what Massaad did, unironically. It is not like these two papers were a one-off.
Joelle Makoukji , Martin Belle , Delphine Meffre , Ruth Stassart , Julien Grenier , Ghjuvan’Ghjacumu Shackleford , Robert Fledrich , Cosima Fonte , Julien Branchu , Marie Goulard , Catherine De Waele , Frédéric Charbonnier , Michael W Sereda , Etienne-Emile Baulieu , Michael Schumacher , Sophie Bernard , Charbel Massaad Lithium enhances remyelination of peripheral nerves Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2012) doi: 10.1073/pnas.1121367109
I am not sure how this can happen by incident: the gels for phosphorylated Akt and GAPDH are obviously very similar, just differently cropped and darkened. The next case, found by Clare Francis after I invited this image integrity sleuth to the Massaad party, is even more difficult to explain by an innocent mistake:
Amalia Trousson , Joelle Makoukji , Patrice X. Petit , Sophie Bernard , Christian Slomianny , Michael Schumacher , Charbel Massaad Cross-talk between oxysterols and glucocorticoids: differential regulation of secreted phopholipase A2 and impact on oligodendrocyte death PLoS ONE (2009) doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008080
This is an example of Flawed Cytometry, where the same sample is presented as two utterly different samples, thanks to some post-measurement re-gating. Conveniently also the quantification numbers become different. The highlighted cell patterns (each dot is a cell detected by FACS) are a give-away that both 24h and 48h sample are actually the same resurrected sample.
There are some clues that at least some of the data reuse might have happened with Massaad’s knowledge. Even if a PI is completely clueless of any digital data manipulation, this PI sure must notice when figures are being reused in his papers, as he did in Grenier et al 2004 and Grenier et al 2006. Clare Francis spotted this also:
Ghjuvan’Ghjacumu Shackleford , Joelle Makoukji , Julien Grenier , Philippe Liere , Delphine Meffre , Charbel Massaad Differential regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by Liver X Receptors in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes Biochemical Pharmacology (2013) –
The Figures 3 and Figures 1B in that paper are namely re-used from an earlier Massaad paper. Even if in similar context this time, this is not how science is supposed to work. The authors formatted the figures differently, which presumably serves as an experimental reproduction.
Joelle Makoukji , Ghjuvan’Ghjacumu Shackleford , Delphine Meffre , Julien Grenier , Philippe Liere , Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro , Michael Schumacher , Charbel Massaad Interplay between LXR and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the negative regulation of peripheral myelin genes by oxysterols Journal of Neuroscience (2011) doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.0761-11.2011
That paper has issues of its own: for some reason the authors were unhappy with their results, and decided to play a bit with library loading controls.
The former president of Université Paris-Descartes whom Masaad intended to succeed, was until 2019 Frederic Dardel, now special advisor to the France’s Minister for Research and Innovation, Frederique Vidal. Dardel qualified for that new job because he defended Vidal’s papers from the evidence I posted on my site, as the minister was threatening me with lawsuits.
One of these Vidal papers was even retracted, by the non-nonsense Journal of Biological Chemistry, the rest apparently saved because a government minister for science cannot be associated with research misconduct activities.
Maybe Brendon Stell is right. French science would certainly be a much more peaceful and harmonic place without my site.
If you are interested to support my work, you can leave here a small tip of $5. Or several of small tips, just increase the amount as you like (2x=€10; 5x=€25). Your generous patronage of my journalism will be most appreciated!
I doubt you get any comments from @IGBMC outbound head @alain_beretz about the Egly case, as he is now also campaigning : https://www.facebook.com/alainfontanel2020/posts/166836248069546
French biological science is like a crystallised flower, stare at it for too long and it will shatter.
“For reasons of symmetry”, was used as and excuse for Jessus’s image manipulation.
French nuclear science is another matter. World-class!
The green ones here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGFkw0hzW1c
North Africa before and after Algeria became independent, then moved to part of France in Pacific Ocean.
Problematic data Grenoble.
EMBO Rep. 2009 Oct;10(10):1168-74. doi: 10.1038/embor.2009.180. Epub 2009 Sep 4.
ING2 controls the progression of DNA replication forks to maintain genome stability.
Larrieu D1, Ythier D, Binet R, Brambilla C, Brambilla E, Sengupta S, Pedeux R.
Molecular Bases of Lung Cancer Progression, INSERM U823, Institut Albert Bonniot, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France.
Figure 3A. Much more similar than you would expect.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 15;14(22):7237-45. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0869. Epub 2008 Oct 30.
Loss of histone H4K20 trimethylation occurs in preneoplasia and influences prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.
Van Den Broeck A1, Brambilla E, Moro-Sibilot D, Lantuejoul S, Brambilla C, Eymin B, Khochbin S, Gazzeri S.
Equipe Bases Moléculaires de la Progression des Cancers du Poumon, Centre de Recherche INSERM U823, Institut Albert Bonniot, Grenoble Cedex, France.
1st April 2020 Editor’s Note.
The editors are publishing this note to alert readers to a concern about this article (1). In the actin row of Fig. 3B, there is a missing splice line between samples 12 and 35, and the sets of actin blots in samples 12 and 35 appear to be duplicates.
Problematic data Villejuif (just south of Paris).
Guido Kroemer (Villejuif) does crop up those above, but is more extensively noted here:
Gulf Medical University (GMU)
” Prof. Salem Chouaib, Director – Thumbay Research Institute for Precision Medicine… joined the tumor biology department at the Institut Gustave Roussy. For more than twenty years, he was leading an INSERM Research Unit (tumor immunology). His laboratory focused on the investigation of the functional cross-talk between cytotoxic cells and tumor targets in the context of tumor microenvironment complexity and plasticity.”
Cell Cycle. 2013 Oct 15;12(20):3298-306. doi: 10.4161/cc.26309. Epub 2013 Sep 9.
ERCC1 function in nuclear excision and interstrand crosslink repair pathways is mediated exclusively by the ERCC1-202 isoform.
Friboulet L1, Postel-Vinay S, Sourisseau T, Adam J, Stoclin A, Ponsonnailles F, Dorvault N, Commo F, Saulnier P, Salome-Desmoulez S, Pottier G, André F, Kroemer G, Soria JC, Olaussen KA.
Gustave Roussy; Villejuif, France; INSERM, U981; IRCIV; Villejuif, France; Département Hospitalo-Universitaire Thorax Innovation (DHU TORINO); Villejuif, France; Université Paris Sud; Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
Figures 1A and 3A. Much more similar than you would expect.
Figure 3A. Much more similar than you would expect. Figure legend figure 3A does not state that part of the data had already been published.
Cell Cycle. 2016;15(2):295-302. doi: 10.1080/15384101.2015.1120918.
Translational regulation of the mRNA encoding the ubiquitin peptidase USP1 involved in the DNA damage response as a determinant of Cisplatin resistance.
Sourisseau T1, Helissey C1, Lefebvre C1, Ponsonnailles F1, Malka-Mahieu H1, Olaussen KA1, André F1, Vagner S2,3,4,5, Soria JC1.
a Inserm Unit 981, DHU TORINO; Gustave Roussy and University Paris Sud ; Villejuif , France.
b Institut Curie ; Center de Recherche ; Orsay , France.
c CNRS UMR3348 ; Orsay , France.
d University Paris-Sud XI ; Orsay , France.
e PSL research university ; Paris , France.
Correction is for publisher’s mistake in omitting figure 3.
Figure 1D. much more similar than you would expect.
More stuff from French lab, but it was eventually retracted:
Pingback: CEA declares Anne Peyroche's data fakery scientifically correct – For Better Science
Genes Dev. 2001 Jul 15;15(14):1845-58.
The set1Delta mutation unveils a novel signaling pathway relayed by the Rad53-dependent hyperphosphorylation of replication protein A that leads to transcriptional activation of repair genes.
Schramke V1, Neecke H, Brevet V, Corda Y, Lucchini G, Longhese MP, Gilson E, Géli V.
Laboratoire D’Ingéniérie des Systèmes Macromoléculaires, Institut de Biologie Structurale et Microbiologie (IBSM), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13402, Marseille, Cedex 20, France.
Figure 2A. Much more similar than you would expect.
Figures 2A and 2B. Much more similar than you would expect.
Problematic data in figure 2A posted 6 years ago.
I believe it makes all the points.
Specks in the background at the same places.
2 retractions for same first author.
J Biol Chem . 2008 Aug 29;283(35):23692-700. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M802647200. Epub 2008 Jul 2.
Differential Cooperation Between Heterochromatin Protein HP1 Isoforms and MyoD in Myoblasts
Hakima Yahi 1, Lauriane Fritsch, Ophelie Philipot, Valentina Guasconi, Mouloud Souidi, Philippe Robin, Anna Polesskaya, Regine Losson, Annick Harel-Bellan, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali
1Institut André Lwoff, CNRS, FRE 2944, 7 rue Guy Moquet, Villejuif, France.
PMID: 18599480 PMCID: PMC3259757 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M802647200
Pubpeer record: https://pubpeer.com/publications/360EDFBA97E90BFB64622DA179CA3B
Nucleic Acids Research, 2012, Vol. 40, No. 22 11363–11379 doi:10.1093/nar/gks868
SPOC1 modulates DNA repair by regulating key determinants of chromatin compaction and DNA
damage response Andreas Mund1 , Tobias Schubert1 , Hannah Staege1 , Sarah Kinkley1 , Kerstin Reumann1 , Malte Kriegs2 , Lauriane Fritsch3 , Valentine Battisti3 , Slimane Ait-Si-Ali3 ,Anne-Sophie Hoffbeck4 , Evi Soutoglou4 and Hans Will1,*
1 Heinrich-Pette-Institute, Leibniz-Institute for Experimental Virology, Department of General Virology,
Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg, 2
University Medical Center Hamburg, Clinic and Policlinic of Radiation
Biology and Experimental Radiooncology, Laboratory of Radiobiology & Experimental Radiooncology,
Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany, 3
University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite´ , Laboratoire
Epige´ ne´ tique et Destin Cellulaire, UMR7216, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, 35 rue Helene Brion, F-75013 Paris and 4 Department of Cancer Biology, Institut de Ge´ ne´ tique et de Biologie Mole´ culaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), CNRS UMR 7104, INSERM U 596, Centre Universitaire de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch CEDEX, France.
Received March 23, 2011; Revised August 24, 2012; Accepted August 29, 2012
Pubpeer record. https://pubpeer.com/publications/BB4CB18C1973986625DE6DDA584BB5
Figure 6A. Much more similar than expected.
Oncogene . 2014 May 29;33(22):2866-75. doi: 10.1038/onc.2013.252. Epub 2013 Jul 1.
Post-transcriptional Regulation of Cyclins D1, D3 and G1 and Proliferation of Human Cancer Cells Depend on IMP-3 Nuclear Localization
T Rivera Vargas 1, S Boudoukha 2, A Simon 1, M Souidi 1, S Cuvellier 3, G Pinna 1, A Polesskaya 1
11] CNRS, FRE 3377, Gif-sur-Yvette, France  Univ Paris-Sud, FRE 3377, Gif-sur-Yvette, France  CEA, FRE 3377, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
21] CNRS, FRE 3377, Gif-sur-Yvette, France  Univ Paris-Sud, FRE 3377, Gif-sur-Yvette, France  CEA, FRE 3377, Gif-sur-Yvette, France  Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
3Inserm U1016, Institut Cochin, Département Génétique et Développement, Paris, France.
IMP-1 and IMP-3 panels. Much more similar after slight horizontal stretching than expected.
CCND1 and CCNG1 panels. Much more similar after slight horizontal stretching than expected.
Genes Dev. 2007 May 1;21(9):1125-38. doi: 10.1101/gad.415007.
Lin-28 Binds IGF-2 mRNA and Participates in Skeletal Myogenesis by Increasing Translation Efficiency
Anna Polesskaya 1, Sylvain Cuvellier, Irina Naguibneva, Arnaud Duquet, Eric G Moss, Annick Harel-Bellan
1Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) FRE 2944, Institut André Lwoff, Villejuif F-94801, France.
Figure 3B. Much more similar than expected.
Genes Dev. 2007 May 1;21(9):1125-38 continued.
Oncogene . 2014 May 29;33(22):2866-75 continued.
Figure 2d. Much more similar than expected.
EMBO Rep. 2006 Nov;7(11):1140-6. doi: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400820. Epub 2006 Oct 6.
Acetylation Is Important for MyoD Function in Adult Mice
Arnaud Duquet 1, Anna Polesskaya, Sylvain Cuvellier, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Patrick Héry, Linda L Pritchard, Matthieu Gerard, Annick Harel-Bellan
1Laboratoire Epigénétique et cancer, CNRS FRE 2944, Institut André Lwoff, 7 rue Guy Moquet, 94801 Villejuif, France.
Figures 5B and 5D.
FEBS Lett. 2014 May 2;588(9):1623-9. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2014.02.057. Epub 2014 Mar 5.
MiRNA let-7g Regulates Skeletal Myoblast Motility via Pinch-2
S Boudoukha 1, T Rivera Vargas 2, I Dang 3, J Kropp 2, S Cuvellier 4, A Gautreau 3, A Polesskaya 5
1CNRS FRE 3377, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Univ Paris-Sud, FRE 3377, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
2CNRS FRE 3377, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Univ Paris-Sud, FRE 3377, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
3Centre de Recherche de Gif, Laboratoire d’Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales, CNRS UPR3082, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
4Inserm U1016, Institut Cochin, INSERM U1016, CNRS 8104, Université Paris Descartes, F-75014 Paris, France.
5CNRS FRE 3377, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Univ Paris-Sud, FRE 3377, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address: email@example.com
Figure 4A. Look at the cells, not the black marks.